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Magnetic materials are of increasing importance for many essential applications due to their unique magnetic properties. However, due to the limited fabrication ability, magnetic materials are restricted by simple geometric shapes. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a highly versatile technique that can be utilized for constructing magnetic materials. The shape flexibility of magnets unleashes opportunities for magnetic composites with reducing post-manufacturing costs, motivating the review on 3D printing of magnetic materials. This paper focuses on recent achievements of magnetic materials using 3D printing technologies, followed by the characterization of their magnetic properties, which are further enhanced by modification. Interestingly, the corresponding properties depend on the intrinsic nature of starting materials, 3D printing processing parameters, and the optimized structural design. More emphasis is placed on the functional applications of 3D-printed magnetic materials in different fields. Lastly, the current challenges and future opportunities are also addressed.

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Advances in 3D printing of magnetic materials: Fabrication, properties, and their applications

Show Author's information Xiangxia WEIaMing-Liang JINaHaiqiang YANGaXiao-Xiong WANGbYun-Ze LONGbZhangwei CHENc( )
Institute for Future, School of Automation, Shandong Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
Collaborative Innovation Center for Nanomaterials & Devices, College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China
Additive Manufacturing Institute, College of Mechatronics and Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China


Magnetic materials are of increasing importance for many essential applications due to their unique magnetic properties. However, due to the limited fabrication ability, magnetic materials are restricted by simple geometric shapes. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a highly versatile technique that can be utilized for constructing magnetic materials. The shape flexibility of magnets unleashes opportunities for magnetic composites with reducing post-manufacturing costs, motivating the review on 3D printing of magnetic materials. This paper focuses on recent achievements of magnetic materials using 3D printing technologies, followed by the characterization of their magnetic properties, which are further enhanced by modification. Interestingly, the corresponding properties depend on the intrinsic nature of starting materials, 3D printing processing parameters, and the optimized structural design. More emphasis is placed on the functional applications of 3D-printed magnetic materials in different fields. Lastly, the current challenges and future opportunities are also addressed.

Keywords: magnetic properties, applications, hard magnets, three-dimensional (3D) printing, soft magnets


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Publication history
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Publication history

Received: 04 August 2021
Revised: 25 October 2021
Accepted: 08 January 2022
Published: 20 April 2022
Issue date: May 2022


© The Authors 2022.


This research work was financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2020QE040). Ming-Liang JIN would like to thank the financial support by the Young Taishan Scholars Program of Shandong Province (No. 201909099).

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