Journal Home > Volume 11 , issue 4

Bone scaffolds require both good bioactivity and mechanical properties to keep shape and promote bone repair. In this work, T-ZnOw enhanced biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS)-based double-layer porous structure were fabricated by digital light processing (DLP) with high precision. Property of suspension was first discussed to obtain better printing quality. After sintering, T-ZnOw reacts with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to form Ca19Zn2(PO4)14, and inhibits the phase transition to α-TCP. With the content of T-ZnOw increasing from 0 to 2 wt%, the flexural strength increases from 40.9 to 68.5 MPa because the four-needle whiskers can disperse stress, and have the effect of pulling out as well as fracture toughening. However, excessive whiskers will reduce the cure depth, and cause more printing defects, thus reducing the mechanical strength. Besides, T-ZnOw accelerates the deposition of apatite, and the sample with 2 wt% T-ZnOw shows the fastest mineralization rate. The good biocompatibility has been proved by cell proliferation test. Results confirmed that doping T-ZnOw can improve the mechanical strength of BCP scaffolds, and keep good biological property, which provides a new strategy for better bone repair.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
Electronic supplementary material
About this article

Preparation and properties of T-ZnOw enhanced BCP scaffolds with double-layer structure by digital light processing

Show Author's information Ming-Zhu PANa,bShuai-Bin HUAa,bJia-Min WUa,b( )Xi YUANcZe-Lin DENGa,bJun XIAOcYu-Sheng SHIa,b
State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China
Engineering Research Center of Ceramic Materials for Additive Manufacturing, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074, China
Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China

† Ming-Zhu Pan and Shuai-Bin Hua contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Bone scaffolds require both good bioactivity and mechanical properties to keep shape and promote bone repair. In this work, T-ZnOw enhanced biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) scaffolds with triply periodic minimal surface (TPMS)-based double-layer porous structure were fabricated by digital light processing (DLP) with high precision. Property of suspension was first discussed to obtain better printing quality. After sintering, T-ZnOw reacts with β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) to form Ca19Zn2(PO4)14, and inhibits the phase transition to α-TCP. With the content of T-ZnOw increasing from 0 to 2 wt%, the flexural strength increases from 40.9 to 68.5 MPa because the four-needle whiskers can disperse stress, and have the effect of pulling out as well as fracture toughening. However, excessive whiskers will reduce the cure depth, and cause more printing defects, thus reducing the mechanical strength. Besides, T-ZnOw accelerates the deposition of apatite, and the sample with 2 wt% T-ZnOw shows the fastest mineralization rate. The good biocompatibility has been proved by cell proliferation test. Results confirmed that doping T-ZnOw can improve the mechanical strength of BCP scaffolds, and keep good biological property, which provides a new strategy for better bone repair.

Keywords:

biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), T-ZnOw, digital light processing (DLP), double-layer structure, cure property, mechanical strength
Received: 11 August 2021 Revised: 09 November 2021 Accepted: 24 November 2021 Published: 03 March 2022 Issue date: April 2022
References(53)
[1]
Campana V, Milano G, Pagano E, et al. Bone substitutes in orthopaedic surgery: From basic science to clinical practice. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2014, 25: 2445-2461.
[2]
Vorndran E, Moseke C, Gbureck U. 3D printing of ceramic implants. MRS Bull 2015, 40: 127-136.
[3]
Manzini BM, Machado LMR, Noritomi PY, et al. Advances in bone tissue engineering: A fundamental review. J Biosci 2021, 46: 17.
[4]
Ambekar RS, Kandasubramanian B. Progress in the advancement of porous biopolymer scaffold: Tissue engineering application. Ind Eng Chem Res 2019, 58: 6163-6194.
[5]
Hua SB, Su J, Deng ZL, et al. Microstructures and properties of 45S5 bioglass® & BCP bioceramic scaffolds fabricated by digital light processing. Addit Manuf 2021, 45: 102074.
[6]
Eliaz N, Metoki N. Calcium phosphate bioceramics: A review of their history, structure, properties, coating technologies and biomedical applications. Materials 2017, 10: 334.
[7]
Gao CD, Peng SP, Feng P, et al. Bone biomaterials and interactions with stem cells. Bone Res 2017, 5: 17059.
[8]
Dorozhkin SV. Biphasic, triphasic and multiphasic calcium orthophosphates. Acta Biomater 2012, 8: 963-977.
[9]
Shiota T, Shibata M, Yasuda K, et al. Influence of β-tricalcium phosphate dispersion on mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite ceramics. J Ceram Soc Jpn 2008, 116: 1002-1005.
[10]
Shuai CJ, Li PJ, Liu JL, et al. Optimization of TCP/HAP ratio for better properties of calcium phosphate scaffold via selective laser sintering. Mater Charact 2013, 77: 23-31.
[11]
Tampieri A, Iafisco M, Sandri M, et al. Magnetic bioinspired hybrid nanostructured collagen-hydroxyapatite scaffolds supporting cell proliferation and tuning regenerative process. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014, 6: 15697-15707.
[12]
Meng J, Xiao B, Zhang Y, et al. Super-paramagnetic responsive nanofibrous scaffolds under static magnetic field enhance osteogenesis for bone repair in vivo. Sci Rep 2013, 3: 2655.
[13]
Kose N, Çaylak R, Pekşen C, et al. Silver ion doped ceramic nano-powder coated nails prevent infection in open fractures: In vivo study. Injury 2016, 47: 320-324.
[14]
Eto S, Miyamoto H, Shobuike T, et al. Silver oxide- containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur. J Orthop Res 2015, 33: 1391-1397.
[15]
Zhang JC, Huang D, Liu SF, et al. Zirconia toughened hydroxyapatite biocomposite formed by a DLP 3D printing process for potential bone tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng C 2019, 105: 110054.
[16]
Wang WH, Yeung KWK. Bone grafts and biomaterials substitutes for bone defect repair: A review. Bioact Mater 2017, 2: 224-247.
[17]
Calhoun NR, Smith JC, Becker KL. The role of zinc in bone metabolism. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1974: 212-234.
[18]
Zeng AR, Zheng YY, Guo Y, et al. Effect of tetra-needle- shaped zinc oxide whisker (T-ZnOw) on mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of isotactic polypropylene. Mater Des 2012, 34: 691-698.
[19]
Yuan FY, Zhang HB, Li XF, et al. Synergistic effect of boron nitride flakes and tetrapod-shaped ZnO whiskers on the thermal conductivity of electrically insulating phenol formaldehyde composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 2013, 53: 137-144.
[20]
Zhou ZW, Liu SK, Gu LX. Studies on the strength and wear resistance of tetrapod-shaped ZnO whisker-reinforced rubber composites. J Appl Polym Sci 2001, 80: 1520-1525.
[21]
Shuai CJ, Deng JJ, Gao CD, et al. Mechanisms of tetraneedlelike ZnO whiskers reinforced forsterite/bioglass scaffolds. J Alloys Compd 2015, 636: 341-347.
[22]
Guo WH, Zhao FJ, Wang YD, et al. Characterization of the mechanical behaviors and bioactivity of tetrapod ZnO whiskers reinforced bioactive glass/gelatin composite scaffolds. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2017, 68: 8-15.
[23]
Kim D, Jang M, Seo J, et al. UV-cured poly(urethane acrylate) composite films containing surface-modified tetrapod ZnO whiskers. Compos Sci Technol 2013, 75: 84-92.
[24]
Choi SW, Zhang Y, Macewan MR, et al. Neovascularization in biodegradable inverse opal scaffolds with uniform and precisely controlled pore sizes. Adv Healthc Mater 2013, 2: 145-154.
[25]
Wu RH, Li YF, Shen MD, et al. Bone tissue regeneration: The role of finely tuned pore architecture of bioactive scaffolds before clinical translation. Bioact Mater 2021, 6: 1242-1254.
[26]
Barba D, Alabort E, Reed RC. Synthetic bone: Design by additive manufacturing. Acta Biomater 2019, 97: 637-656.
[27]
Ma SH, Song KL, Lan J, et al. Biological and mechanical property analysis for designed heterogeneous porous scaffolds based on the refined TPMS. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2020, 107: 103727.
[28]
Kaur I, Singh P. Flow and thermal transport characteristics of triply-periodic minimal surface (TPMS)-based gyroid and Schwarz-P cellular materials. Numer Heat Transf A Appl 2021, 79: 553-569.
[29]
Wu JM, Li M, Liu SS, et al. Selective laser sintering of porous Al2O3-based ceramics using both Al2O3 and SiO2 poly-hollow microspheres as raw materials. Ceram Int 2021, 47: 15313-15318.
[30]
Liu SS, Li M, Wu JM, et al. Preparation of high-porosity Al2O3 ceramic foams via selective laser sintering of Al2O3 poly-hollow microspheres. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 4240-4247.
[31]
Ashwin AJ, Jafferson JM. State of the art direct ink writing (DIW) and experimental trial on DIW of HAp bio-ceramics. Mater Today Proc 2021, 46: 1298-1307.
[32]
Li H, Liu YS, Liu YS, et al. Effect of sintering temperature in argon atmosphere on microstructure and properties of 3D printed alumina ceramic cores. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 220-231.
[33]
Chen F, Zhu H, Wu JM, et al. Preparation and biological evaluation of ZrO2 all-ceramic teeth by DLP technology. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 11268-11274.
[34]
Yao YX, Qin W, Xing BH, et al. High performance hydroxyapatite ceramics and a triply periodic minimum surface structure fabricated by digital light processing 3D printing. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 39-48.
[35]
Chen ZW, Li ZY, Li JJ, et al. 3D printing of ceramics: A review. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 661-687.
[36]
Chen Z, Sun XH, Shang YP, et al. Dense ceramics with complex shape fabricated by 3D printing: A review. J Adv Ceram 2021, 10: 195-218.
[37]
Feng CW, Zhang KQ, He RJ, et al. Additive manufacturing of hydroxyapatite bioceramic scaffolds: Dispersion, digital light processing, sintering, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 360-373.
[38]
Li YH, Wang ML, Wu HD, et al. Cure behavior of colorful ZrO2 suspensions during digital light processing (DLP) based stereolithography process. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 4921-4927.
[39]
Zheng JT, Zhang H, Li X. Effect of ternary particles size distribution on rheology of slurry and microstructure of DLP printed ZTA ceramic. Mater Chem Phys 2021, 269: 124656.
[40]
Li XB, Zhong H, Zhang JX, et al. Fabrication of zirconia all-ceramic crown via DLP-based stereolithography. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2020, 17: 844-853.
[41]
Peng PF, Wang F, Liao QL, et al. Effect of T-ZnOw addition on the degradability of sol-gel derived SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass-ceramics. J Non Cryst Solids 2020, 529: 119798.
[42]
Li Z, Yang RS, Yu M, et al. Cellular level biocompatibility and biosafety of ZnO nanowires. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112: 20114-20117.
[43]
Ghaffari M, Moztarzadeh F, Safavi M. A comparative study on the shape-dependent biological activity of nanostructured zinc oxide. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 1179-1188.
[44]
Bagheri Saed A, Behravesh AH, Hasannia S, et al. Functionalized poly L-lactic acid synthesis and optimization of process parameters for 3D printing of porous scaffolds via digital light processing (DLP) method. J Manuf Process 2020, 56: 550-561.
[45]
Bagheri Saed A, Behravesh AH, Hasannia S, et al. An in vitro study on the key features of poly L-lactic acid/ biphasic calcium phosphate scaffolds fabricated via DLP 3D printing for bone grafting. Eur Polym J 2020, 141: 110057.
[46]
Tomeckova V, Halloran JW. Flow behavior of polymerizable ceramic suspensions as function of ceramic volume fraction and temperature. J Eur Ceram Soc 2011, 31: 2535-2542.
[47]
Borlaf M, Serra-Capdevila A, Colominas C, et al. Development of UV-curable ZrO2 slurries for additive manufacturing (LCM-DLP) technology. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 3797-3803.
[48]
Scialla S, Carella F, Dapporto M, et al. Mussel shell- derived macroporous 3D scaffold: Characterization and optimization study of a bioceramic from the circular economy. Mar Drugs 2020, 18: 309.
[49]
Fukuda A, Takemoto M, Saito T, et al. Osteoinduction of porous Ti implants with a channel structure fabricated by selective laser melting. Acta Biomater 2011, 7: 2327-2336.
[50]
Serena S, Carbajal L, Sainz MA, et al. Thermodynamic assessment of the system CaO-P2O5: Application of the ionic two-sublattice model to glass-forming melts. J Am Ceram Soc 2011, 94: 3094-3103.
[51]
Carbajal L, Serena S, Caballero A, et al. Role of ZnO additions on the β/α phase relation in TCP based materials: Phase stability, properties, dissolution and biological response. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 1375-1385.
[52]
Romeis S, Hoppe A, Eisermann C, et al. Enhancing in vitro bioactivity of melt-derived 45S5 bioglass® by comminution in a stirred media mill. J Am Ceram Soc 2014, 97: 150-156.
[53]
Syazwan MNM, Ahmad-Fauzi MN, Balestri W, et al. Effectiveness of various sintering aids on the densification and in vitro properties of carbonated hydroxyapatite porous scaffolds produced by foam replication technique. Mater Today Commun 2021, 27: 102395.
File
s40145-021-0557-z_ESM.pdf (249.2 KB)
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 11 August 2021
Revised: 09 November 2021
Accepted: 24 November 2021
Published: 03 March 2022
Issue date: April 2022

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2021.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the financial support from the Major Special Projects of Technological Innovation in Hubei Province (2019AAA002), the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFB1105503), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2019kfyXMPY020, 2020kfyFPZX003, 2018KFYYXJJ030, and 2019kfyXKJC011). The authors would like to thank Chen-Min Yao and Xiao-Yi Wu from Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University for in vitro test, thank State Key Laboratory of Materials Processing and Die & Mould Technology for SEM and mechanical property tests, and also thank the Huazhong University of Science & Technology Analytical & Testing Center for XRD and FTIR tests.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return