Journal Home > Volume 11 , issue 4

Inspired by the transport behavior of water and ions through the aligned channels in trees, we demonstrate a facile, scalable approach for constructing biomorphic cellular Si3N4 ceramic frameworks with well-aligned nanowhisker arrays on the surface of directionally aligned microchannel alignments. Through a facile Y(NO3)3 solution infiltration into wood-derived carbon preforms and subsequent heat treatment, we can faultlessly duplicate the anisotropic wood architectures into free-standing bulk porous Si3N4 ceramics. Firstly, α-Si3N4 microchannels were synthesized on the surface of CB-templates via carbothermal reduction nitridation (CRN). And then, homogeneous distributed Y-Si-O-N liquid phase on the walls of microchannel facilitated the anisotropic β-Si3N4 grain growth to form nanowhisker arrays. The dense aligned microchannels with low-tortuosity enable excellent load carrying capacity and thermal conduction through the entire materials. As a result, the porous Si3N4 ceramics exhibited an outstanding thermal conductivity (TC, kR ≈ 6.26 W·m-1·K-1), a superior flexural strength (σL ≈ 29.4 MPa), and a relative high anisotropic ratio of TC (kR/kL = 4.1). The orientation dependence of the microstructure-property relations may offer a promising perspective for the fabrication of multifunctional ceramics.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Anisotropic, biomorphic cellular Si3N4 ceramics with directional well-aligned nanowhisker arrays based on wood-mimetic architectures

Show Author's information Songsong XUaXiaonan ZHOUaQiang ZHIaJunjie GAOaLiucheng HAOa,bZhongqi SHIaBo WANGa,b( )Jianfeng YANGa( )Kozo ISHIZAKIc
State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
High Voltage Switchgear Insulation Materials Laboratory of State Grid, Pinggao Group Co., Ltd., Pingdingshan 467001, China
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188, Japan

Abstract

Inspired by the transport behavior of water and ions through the aligned channels in trees, we demonstrate a facile, scalable approach for constructing biomorphic cellular Si3N4 ceramic frameworks with well-aligned nanowhisker arrays on the surface of directionally aligned microchannel alignments. Through a facile Y(NO3)3 solution infiltration into wood-derived carbon preforms and subsequent heat treatment, we can faultlessly duplicate the anisotropic wood architectures into free-standing bulk porous Si3N4 ceramics. Firstly, α-Si3N4 microchannels were synthesized on the surface of CB-templates via carbothermal reduction nitridation (CRN). And then, homogeneous distributed Y-Si-O-N liquid phase on the walls of microchannel facilitated the anisotropic β-Si3N4 grain growth to form nanowhisker arrays. The dense aligned microchannels with low-tortuosity enable excellent load carrying capacity and thermal conduction through the entire materials. As a result, the porous Si3N4 ceramics exhibited an outstanding thermal conductivity (TC, kR ≈ 6.26 W·m-1·K-1), a superior flexural strength (σL ≈ 29.4 MPa), and a relative high anisotropic ratio of TC (kR/kL = 4.1). The orientation dependence of the microstructure-property relations may offer a promising perspective for the fabrication of multifunctional ceramics.

Keywords:

silicon nitride, anisotropic, carbothermal reduction nitridation (CRN), wood, nanowhisker arrays
Received: 08 September 2021 Revised: 26 October 2021 Accepted: 15 November 2021 Published: 17 March 2022 Issue date: April 2022
References(41)
[1]
Zhou Y, Hyuga H, Kusano D, et al. A tough silicon nitride ceramic with high thermal conductivity. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 4563-4567.
[2]
Zhang Y, Yao DX, Zuo KH, et al. A novel route for the fabrication of porous Si3N4 ceramics with unidirectionally aligned channels. Mater Lett 2020, 276: 128264.
[3]
Zhi Q, Wang B, Zhao S, et al. Simultaneous improvement in porosity and strength of porous β-Si3N4 ceramics by formation of ultrafine fibrous grains. Ceram Int 2021, 47: 8113-8122.
[4]
Wang B, Yang J, Guo R, et al. Microstructure characterization of hot-pressed β-silicon nitride containing β-Si3N4 seeds. Mater Charact 2009, 60: 894-899.
[5]
Riley FL. Silicon nitride and related materials. J Am Ceram Soc 2000, 83: 245-265.
[6]
Ma N, Du LJ, Liu WT, et al. Preparation of porous Si3N4 ceramics with unidirectionally aligned channels. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 9145-9151.
[7]
Thumbs J, Kohler HH. Capillaries in alginate gel as an example of dissipative structure formation. Chem Phys 1996, 208: 9-24.
[8]
Liu RP, Yuan J, Wang CA. A novel way to fabricate tubular porous mullite membrane supports by TBA-based freezing casting method. J Eur Ceram Soc 2013, 33: 3249-3256.
[9]
Liu RP, Xu TT, Wang CA. A review of fabrication strategies and applications of porous ceramics prepared by freeze-casting method. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 2907-2925.
[10]
Wei ZL, Xie WQ, Zhang XY, et al. Preparation of AlN micro-honeycombs with high permeability via freeze- casting. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 4462-4468.
[11]
Schnepp Z, Yang W, Antonietti M, et al. Biotemplating of metal carbide microstructures: The magnetic leaf. Angew Chem Int Ed 2010, 49: 6564-6566.
[12]
Galusha JW, Jorgensen MR, Bartl MH. Diamond-structured titania photonic-bandgap crystals from biological templates. Adv Mater 2010, 22: 107-110.
[13]
Yao H, Zheng G, Li W, et al. Crab shells as sustainable templates from nature for nanostructured battery electrodes. Nano Lett 2013, 13: 3385-3390.
[14]
Huebsch N, Mooney DJ. Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials. Nature 2009, 462: 426-432.
[15]
Streitwieser DA, Popovska N, Gerhard H, et al. Application of the chemical vapor infiltration and reaction (CVI-R) technique for the preparation of highly porous biomorphic SiC ceramics derived from paper. J Eur Ceram Soc 2005, 25: 817-828.
[16]
Pan JM, Pan JF, Cheng XN, et al. Synthesis of hierarchical porous silicon oxycarbide ceramics from preceramic polymer and wood biomass composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 249-256.
[17]
Chen CJ, Zhang Y, Li YJ, et al. Highly conductive, lightweight, low-tortuosity carbon frameworks as ultrathick 3D current collectors. Adv Energy Mater 2017, 7: 1700595.
[18]
Yu M, Li GQ, Saunders T. Biomorphic wood-derived titanium carbides prepared by physical vapor infiltration- reaction synthesis. Ceram Int 2021, 47: 11459-11464.
[19]
Liu ZT, Fan TX, Zhang W, et al. The synthesis of hierarchical porous iron oxide with wood templates. Micropor Mesopor Mater 2005, 85: 82-88.
[20]
Cao J, Rambo CR, Sieber H. Manufacturing of microcellular, biomorphous oxide ceramics from native pine wood. Ceram Int 2004, 30: 1967-1970.
[21]
Rambo CR, Sieber H. Novel synthetic route to biomorphic Al2O3 ceramics. Adv Mater 2005, 17: 1088-1091.
[22]
Vogli E, Mukerji J, Hoffman C, et al. Conversion of oak to cellular silicon carbide ceramic by gas-phase reaction with silicon monoxide. J Am Ceram Soc 2001, 84: 1236-1240.
[23]
Vogli E, Sieber H, Greil P. Biomorphic SiC-ceramic prepared by Si-vapor phase infiltration of wood. J Eur Ceram Soc 2002, 22: 2663-2668.
[24]
Zhang JF, Zhou XN, Huang X, et al. Biomorphic cellular silicon carbide nanocrystal-based ceramics derived from wood for use as thermally stable and lightweight structural materials. ACS Appl Nano Mater 2019, 2: 7051-7060.
[25]
Real C, Alcalá MD, Criado JM. Synthesis of silicon nitride from carbothermal reduction of rice husks by the constant- rate-thermal-analysis (CRTA) method. J Am Ceram Soc 2004, 87: 75-78.
[26]
Luo M, Gao JQ, Yang JF, et al. Biomorphic silicon nitride ceramics with fibrous morphology prepared by sol infiltration and reduction-nitridation. J Am Ceram Soc 2007, 90: 4036-4039.
[27]
Long ML, Li Y, Jin XM, et al. Silicon nitridation mechanism in reaction-bonded Si3N4-SiC and Si3N4- bonded ferrosilicon nitride. J Am Ceram Soc 2018, 101: 4350-4356.
[28]
Deldicque D, Rouzaud JN, Velde B. A Raman-HRTEM study of the carbonization of wood: A new Raman-based paleothermometer dedicated to archaeometry. Carbon 2016, 102: 319-329.
[29]
Paris O, Zollfrank C, Zickler GA. Decomposition and carbonisation of wood biopolymers—A microstructural study of softwood pyrolysis. Carbon 2005, 43: 53-66.
[30]
Lukianova OA, Parkhomenko AA, Krasilnikov VV, et al. New method of free silicon determination in pressureless sintered silicon nitride by Raman spectroscopy and XRD. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 14338-14346.
[31]
Xie T, Ye M, Wu YC, et al. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectrum analyses of monocrystalline α-Si3N4 nanowires. J Chin Ceram Soc 2008, 36: 44-48, 53. (in Chinese)
[32]
Sergo V, Pezzotti G, Katagiri G, et al. Stress dependence of the Raman spectrum of β-silicon nitride. J Am Ceram Soc 1996, 79: 781-784.
[33]
Chen C, Hu L. Nanocellulose toward advanced energy storage devices: Structure and electrochemistry. Acc Chem Res 2018, 51: 3154-3165.
[34]
Wang B, Xu ZY, Jin F, et al. Synthesis of rod-like β-Si3N4 seed crystals with tailored morphology. Ceram Int 2015, 41: 5348-5354.
[35]
Björklund H, Falk LKL, Rundgren K, et al. β-Si3N4 grain growth, part I: Effect of metal oxide sintering additives. J Eur Ceram Soc 1997, 17: 1285-1299.
[36]
Björklund H, Falk LKL. β-Si3N4 grain growth, part II: Intergranular glass chemistry. J Eur Ceram Soc 1997, 17: 1301-1308.
[37]
Ren Z, Guo YB, Gao PX. Nano-array based monolithic catalysts: Concept, rational materials design and tunable catalytic performance. Catal Today 2015, 258: 441-453.
[38]
Herzog A, Klingner R, Vogt U, et al. Wood-derived porous SiC ceramics by sol infiltration and carbothermal reduction. J Am Ceram Soc 2004, 87: 784-793.
[39]
Zhao XT, Wang HL, Shang W, et al. Properties and processing of porous Si3N4 ceramics. Key Eng Mater 2014, 602-603: 375-379.
[40]
Yin LY, Zhou XG, Yu JS, et al. Highly porous silicon nitride foam prepared using a route similar to the making of aerated food. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2016, 13: 395-404.
[41]
Yin LY, Zhou XG, Yu JS, et al. Preparation of high porous silicon nitride foams with ultra-thin walls and excellent mechanical performance for heat exchanger application by using a protein foaming method. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 1713-1719.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 08 September 2021
Revised: 26 October 2021
Accepted: 15 November 2021
Published: 17 March 2022
Issue date: April 2022

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2021.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51872223 and U2066216), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2020M672248), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. xzy012019014), and the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2017YFB0903800 and 2017YFB0310300).

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return