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Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) are generally referred to the carbides, nitrides, and borides of the transition metals, with the Group IVB compounds (Zr & Hf) and TaC as the main focus. The UHTCs are endowed with ultra-high melting points, excellent mechanical properties, and ablation resistance at elevated temperatures. These unique combinations of properties make them promising materials for extremely environmental structural applications in rocket and hypersonic vehicles, particularly nozzles, leading edges, and engine components, etc. In addition to bulk UHTCs, UHTC coatings and fiber reinforced UHTC composites are extensively developed and applied to avoid the intrinsic brittleness and poor thermal shock resistance of bulk ceramics. Recently, high- entropy UHTCs are developed rapidly and attract a lot of attention as an emerging direction for ultra-high temperature materials. This review presents the state of the art of processing approaches, microstructure design and properties of UHTCs from bulk materials to composites and coatings, as well as the future directions.


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Advances in ultra-high temperature ceramics, composites, and coatings

Show Author's information Dewei NI1Yuan CHENG2Jiaping ZHANG3Ji-Xuan LIU4Ji ZOU5Bowen CHEN1,6Haoyang WU5Hejun LI3Shaoming DONG1Jiecai HAN2Xinghong ZHANG2( )Qiangang FU3( )Guo-Jun ZHANG4( )
State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics & Superfine Microstructure, Structural Ceramics and Composites Engineering Research Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments, Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Fiber Reinforced Light Composite Materials, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Institute of Functional Materials, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China
State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

† Dewei Ni, Yuan Cheng, Jiaping Zhang, Ji-Xuan Liu, and Ji Zou contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs) are generally referred to the carbides, nitrides, and borides of the transition metals, with the Group IVB compounds (Zr & Hf) and TaC as the main focus. The UHTCs are endowed with ultra-high melting points, excellent mechanical properties, and ablation resistance at elevated temperatures. These unique combinations of properties make them promising materials for extremely environmental structural applications in rocket and hypersonic vehicles, particularly nozzles, leading edges, and engine components, etc. In addition to bulk UHTCs, UHTC coatings and fiber reinforced UHTC composites are extensively developed and applied to avoid the intrinsic brittleness and poor thermal shock resistance of bulk ceramics. Recently, high- entropy UHTCs are developed rapidly and attract a lot of attention as an emerging direction for ultra-high temperature materials. This review presents the state of the art of processing approaches, microstructure design and properties of UHTCs from bulk materials to composites and coatings, as well as the future directions.

Keywords:

ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTCs), coatings, composites, high-entropy ultra-high temperature ceramics
Received: 09 September 2021 Revised: 12 October 2021 Accepted: 16 October 2021 Published: 24 December 2021 Issue date: January 2022
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Publication history

Received: 09 September 2021
Revised: 12 October 2021
Accepted: 16 October 2021
Published: 24 December 2021
Issue date: January 2022

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© The Author(s) 2021.

Acknowledgements

The financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52032001, 52022072, 52032003, 51972243, 92060202, 51872239, 51872059, 51772061, 52061135102, 52002321, 50632070, 51272266, and 52102093), bilateral project of NSFC-JSPS (51111140017 and 51611140121), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2021M690817), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (G2020KY05125), Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences, CAS (QYZDY-SSW- JSC031), the projects supported by the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology (2021-KF-5), and the State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, Donghua University (KF2116) are greatly acknowledged. The authors also would like to thank Prof. Shi C. Zhang (Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri, USA) for language proofreading and helpful suggestions.

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