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Review | Open Access

From structural ceramics to 2D materials with multi-applications: A review on the development from MAX phases to MXenes

Aiguo ZHOUa( )Yi LIUb( )Shibo LIc( )Xiaohui WANGd( )Guobing YINGe( )Qixun XIAaPeigen ZHANGf( )
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China
School of Materials Science & Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021, China
Center of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Mechanical and Electronic Control Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metals Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China
College of Mechanics and Materials, Hohai University, Nanjing 211100, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 211189, China
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MAX phases (Ti3SiC2, Ti3AlC2, V2AlC, Ti4AlN3, etc.) are layered ternary carbides/nitrides, which are generally processed and researched as structure ceramics. Selectively removing A layer from MAX phases, MXenes (Ti3C2, V2C, Mo2C, etc.) with two-dimensional (2D) structure can be prepared. The MXenes are electrically conductive and hydrophilic, which are promising as functional materials in many areas. This article reviews the milestones and the latest progress in the research of MAX phases and MXenes, from the perspective of ceramic science. Especially, this article focuses on the conversion from MAX phases to MXenes. First, we summarize the microstructure, preparation, properties, and applications of MAX phases. Among the various properties, the crack healing properties of MAX phase are highlighted. Thereafter, the critical issues on MXene research, including the preparation process, microstructure, MXene composites, and application of MXenes, are reviewed. Among the various applications, this review focuses on two selected applications: energy storage and electromagnetic interference shielding. Moreover, new research directions and future trends on MAX phases and MXenes are also discussed.


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Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 1194-1242
Cite this article:
ZHOU A, LIU Y, LI S, et al. From structural ceramics to 2D materials with multi-applications: A review on the development from MAX phases to MXenes. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2021, 10(6): 1194-1242.
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Received: 05 July 2021
Revised: 06 September 2021
Accepted: 07 September 2021
Published: 10 November 2021
© The Author(s) 2021

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