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Three-dimensional (3D) grid porous electrodes introduce vertically aligned pores as a convenient path for the transport of lithium-ions (Li-ions), thereby reducing the total transport distance of Li-ions and improving the reaction kinetics. Although there have been other studies focusing on 3D electrodes fabricated by 3D printing, there still exists a gap between electrode design and their electrochemical performance. In this study, we try to bridge this gap through a comprehensive investigation on the effects of various electrode parameters including the electrode porosity, active material particle diameter, electrode electronic conductivity, electrode thickness, line width, and pore size on the electrochemical performance. Both numerical simulations and experimental investigations are conducted to systematically examine these effects. 3D grid porous Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) thick electrodes are fabricated by low temperature direct writing technology and the electrodes with the thickness of 1085 μm and areal mass loading of 39.44 mg·cm-2 are obtained. The electrodes display impressive electrochemical performance with the areal capacity of 5.88 mAh·cm-2@1.0 C, areal energy density of 28.95 J·cm-2@1.0 C, and areal power density of 8.04 mW·cm-2@1.0 C. This study can provide design guidelines for obtaining 3D grid porous electrodes with superior electrochemical performance.


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Novel 3D grid porous Li4Ti5O12 thick electrodes fabricated by 3D printing for high performance lithium-ion batteries

Show Author's information Changyong LIUa,bYin QIUaYanliang LIUaKun XUaNing ZHAOaChangshi LAOaJun SHENbZhangwei CHENa,b( )
Additive Manufacturing Institute, College of Mechatronics & Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Control and Intelligent Robots, College of Mechatronics & Control Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) grid porous electrodes introduce vertically aligned pores as a convenient path for the transport of lithium-ions (Li-ions), thereby reducing the total transport distance of Li-ions and improving the reaction kinetics. Although there have been other studies focusing on 3D electrodes fabricated by 3D printing, there still exists a gap between electrode design and their electrochemical performance. In this study, we try to bridge this gap through a comprehensive investigation on the effects of various electrode parameters including the electrode porosity, active material particle diameter, electrode electronic conductivity, electrode thickness, line width, and pore size on the electrochemical performance. Both numerical simulations and experimental investigations are conducted to systematically examine these effects. 3D grid porous Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) thick electrodes are fabricated by low temperature direct writing technology and the electrodes with the thickness of 1085 μm and areal mass loading of 39.44 mg·cm-2 are obtained. The electrodes display impressive electrochemical performance with the areal capacity of 5.88 mAh·cm-2@1.0 C, areal energy density of 28.95 J·cm-2@1.0 C, and areal power density of 8.04 mW·cm-2@1.0 C. This study can provide design guidelines for obtaining 3D grid porous electrodes with superior electrochemical performance.

Keywords:

three-dimensional (3D) porous thick electrodes, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), 3D printing, lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery
Received: 05 May 2021 Revised: 04 September 2021 Accepted: 04 September 2021 Published: 11 January 2022 Issue date: February 2022
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Publication history

Received: 05 May 2021
Revised: 04 September 2021
Accepted: 04 September 2021
Published: 11 January 2022
Issue date: February 2022

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2021.

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51705334 and 51975384) and the Shenzhen Science & Technology Projects (Nos. JCYJ20180305125025855 and JCYJ20200109105618137).

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