Journal Home > Volume 10 , Issue 5

Severe volume expansion and inherently poor lithium ion transmission are two major problems of silicon anodes. To address these issues, we proposed a pomegranate-type Si/C composite anode with highly dispersed tiny silicon particles as the core assisted by small amount of SiC. Skillfully exploiting the high heat from magnesiothermic reduction, SiC can assist the good dispersion of silicon and provide good interface compatibility and chemical stability. The silicon anchored to the carbon shell provides multipoint contact mode, that together with the carbon shell frame, significantly promoting the transfer of dual charge. Besides, the pomegranate-type microcluster structure also improves the tap density of the electrode, reduces the direct contact area between active material and electrolyte, and enhances the electrochemical performance.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
Electronic supplementary material
About this article

Pomegranate-type Si/C anode with SiC taped, well-dispersed tiny Si particles for lithium-ion batteries

Show Author's information Pengfei WUa,bBenyang SHIaHuibin TUaChangqing GUOaAnhua LIUa,b( )Guan YANc( )Zhaoju YUa( )
Key Laboratory of High-Performance Ceramic Fibers of Ministry of Education, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China
Shenzhen Research Institute of Xiamen University, Shenzhen 518000, China
College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China

† Pengfei Wu and Benyang Shi contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Severe volume expansion and inherently poor lithium ion transmission are two major problems of silicon anodes. To address these issues, we proposed a pomegranate-type Si/C composite anode with highly dispersed tiny silicon particles as the core assisted by small amount of SiC. Skillfully exploiting the high heat from magnesiothermic reduction, SiC can assist the good dispersion of silicon and provide good interface compatibility and chemical stability. The silicon anchored to the carbon shell provides multipoint contact mode, that together with the carbon shell frame, significantly promoting the transfer of dual charge. Besides, the pomegranate-type microcluster structure also improves the tap density of the electrode, reduces the direct contact area between active material and electrolyte, and enhances the electrochemical performance.

Keywords:

Si/C anode, anchored Si, SiC tape, magnesiothermic reduction, pomegranate like
Received: 25 January 2021 Revised: 19 April 2021 Accepted: 09 May 2021 Published: 13 July 2021 Issue date: October 2021
References(44)
[1]
Ding Y, Cano Z, Yu A, et al. Automotive Li-ion batteries: Current status and future perspectives. Electrochem Energy Rev 2019, 2: 1-28.
[2]
Wang S, Yang Y, Dong Y, et al. Recent progress in Ti-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 1-18.
[3]
Rehman WU, Wang HF, Manj RZA, et al. When silicon materials meet natural sources: Opportunities and challenges for low-cost lithium storage. Small 2019, 17: 1904508.
[4]
Wang Q, Mao B, Stoliarov SI, et al. A review of lithium ion battery failure mechanisms and fire prevention strategies. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2019, 73: 95-131.
[5]
Wang F, Chen G, Zhang N, et al. Engineering of carbon and other protective coating layers for stabilizing silicon anode materials. Carbon Energy 2019, 1: 219-245.
[6]
Tu W, Bai Z, Deng Z, et al. In-situ synthesized Si@C materials for the lithium ion battery: A mini review. Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019, 9: E432.
[7]
Zhong Y, Wu P, Ge S, et al. An egg holders-inspired structure design for large-volume-change anodes with long cycle life. J Alloys Compd 2020, 816: 152497.
[8]
Liu N, Wu H, McDowell MT, et al. A yolk-shell design for stabilized and scalable Li-ion battery alloy anodes. Nano Lett 2012, 12: 3315-3321.
[9]
Zhang L, Rajagopalan R, Guo HP, et al. Lithium-ion batteries: A green and facile way to prepare granadilla-like silicon- based anode materials for Li-ion batteries. Adv Funct Mater 2016, 26: 468.
[10]
Liu N, Lu Z, Zhao J, et al. A pomegranate-inspired nanoscale design for large-volume-change lithium battery anodes. Nat Nanotechnol 2014, 9: 187-192.
[11]
Entwistle J, Rennie A, Patwardhan S. A review of magnesiothermic reduction of silica to porous silicon for lithium-ion battery applications and beyond. J Mater Chem A 2018, 6: 18344-18356.
[12]
Cook JB, Kim HS, Lin TC, et al. Tuning porosity and surface area in mesoporous silicon for application in Li-ion battery electrodes. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017, 9: 19063-19073.
[13]
Shi L, Wang W, Wang A, et al. Understanding the impact mechanism of the thermal effect on the porous silicon anode material preparation via magnesiothermic reduction. J Alloys Compd 2016, 661: 27-37.
[14]
Guo S, Hu X, Hou Y, et al. Tunable synthesis of yolk-shell porous Silicon@Carbon for optimizing Si/C-based anode of lithium-ion batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017, 9: 42084-42092.
[15]
Lin N, Han Y, Wang L, et al. Preparation of nanocrystalline silicon from SiCl4 at 200 ℃ in molten salt for high-performance anodes for lithium ion batteries. Angewandte Chemie Int Ed 2015, 54: 3822-3825.
[16]
Lin N, Han Y, Zhou J, et al. A low temperature molten salt process for aluminothermic reduction of silicon oxides to crystalline Si for Li-ion batteries. Energy Environ Sci 2015, 8: 3187-3191.
[17]
Weng Y, Chen G, Dou F, et al. In-situ growth of silicon carbide interface enhances the long life and high power of the mulberry-like Si-based anode for lithium-ion batteries. Energy Storage 2020, 32: 101856.
[18]
Wang W, Wang Y, Gu L, et al. SiC@Si core-shell nanowires on carbon paper as a hybrid anode for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 2015, 293: 492-497.
[19]
Ngo DT, Le HTT, Pham XM, et al. Facile synthesis of Si@SiC composite as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017, 9: 32790-32800.
[20]
Yu ZJ, Lv X, Lai SY, et al. ZrC-ZrB2-SiC ceramic nanocomposites derived from a novel single-source precursor with high ceramic yield. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 112-120.
[21]
Chen Y, Zhang J, Chen X, et al. Facile preparation of Hollow Si/SiC/C yolk-shell anode by one-step magnesiothermic reduction. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 17040-17047.
[22]
Wu P, Chen S, Liu A. The influence of contact engineering on silicon-based anode for li-ion batteries. Nano Sel 2021, 2: 468-491.
[23]
Li L, Ding J, Xue JM. Macroporous silica hollow microspheres as nanoparticle collectors. Chem Mater 2009, 21: 3629-3637.
[24]
Zhang H, Li X, Guo H, et al. Hollow Si/C composite as anode material for high performance lithium-ion battery. Powder Technol 2016, 299: 178-184.
[25]
Choi MJ, Xiao Y, Hwang JY, et al. Novel strategy to improve the Li-storage performance of micro silicon anodes. J Power Sources 2017, 348: 302-310.
[26]
Kim B, Ahn J, Oh Y, et al. Highly porous carbon-coated silicon nanoparticles with canyon-like surfaces as a high- performance anode material for Li-ion batteries. J Mater Chem A 2018, 6: 3028-3037.
[27]
Wu L, Zhou H, Yang J, et al. Carbon coated mesoporous Si anode prepared by a partial magnesiothermic reduction for lithium-ion batteries. J Alloys Compd 2017, 716: 204-209.
[28]
Chen SQ, Shen LF, van Aken PA, et al. Dual-functionalized double carbon shells coated silicon nanoparticles for high performance lithium-ion batteries. Adv Mater 2017, 29: 1605650.
[29]
Yu Z, Yang Y, Mao K, et al. Single-source-precursor synthesis and phase evolution of SiC-TaC-C ceramic nanocomposites containing core-shell structured TaC@C nanoparticles. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 320-328.
[30]
Luo L, Xu Y, Zhang H, et al. Comprehensive understanding of high polar polyacrylonitrile as an effective binder for Li-ion battery nano-Si anodes. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016, 8: 8154-8161.
[31]
Zhang JM, Tang JJ, Zhou XY, et al. Optimized porous Si/SiC composite spheres as high-performance anode material for lithium-ion batteries. ChemElectroChem 2019, 6: 450-455.
[32]
Wang W, Wang Y, Gu L, et al. SiC@Si core-shell nanowires on carbon paper as a hybrid anode for lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 2015, 293: 492-497.
[33]
Cho J. Porous Si anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. J Mater Chem 2010, 20: 4009-4014.
[34]
Nie P, Liu X, Fu R, et al. Mesoporous silicon anodes by using polybenzimidazole derived pyrrolic Nenriched carbon toward high-energy Li-ion batteries. ACS Energy Lett 2017, 2: ‏1279-1287.
[35]
Ryu J, Hong D, Choi S, et al. Synthesis of ultrathin Si nanosheets from natural clays for lithium-ion battery anodes. ACS Nano 2016, 10: 2843-2851.
[36]
Li Q, Jiang R, Dou Y, et al. Synthesis of mesoporous carbon spheres with a hierarchical pore structure for the electrochemical double-layer capacitor. Carbon 2011, 49: 1248-1257.
[37]
Yamauchi Y, Suzuki N, Radhakrishnan L, et al. Breakthrough and future: Nanoscale controls of compositions, morphologies, and mesochannel orientations toward advanced mesoporous materials. Chem Rec 2009, 9: 321-339.
[38]
Huang X, Ding Y, Li K, et al. Spontaneous formation of the conformal carbon nanolayer coated Si nanostructures as the stable anode for lithium-ion batteries from silica nanomaterials. J Power Sources 2021, 496: 229833.
[39]
Jin Y, Tan Y, Hu X, et al. Scalable production of the silicon-tin Yin-Yang hybrid structure with graphene coating for high performance lithium-ion battery anodes. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017, 9: 15388-15393.
[40]
Chen Y, Hu Y, Shen Z, et al. Sandwich structure of graphene- protected silicon/carbon nanofibers for lithium-ion battery anodes. Electrochimica Acta 2016, 210: 53-60.
[41]
Parekh MH, Sediako AD, Naseri A, et al. In situ mechanistic elucidation of superior Si-C-graphite Li-ion battery anode formation with thermal safety aspects. Adv Energy Mater 2020, 10: 1902799.
[42]
Yang Y, Lu Z, Xia J, et al. Crystalline and amorphous carbon double-modified silicon anode: Towards large-scale production and superior lithium storage performance. Chem Eng Sci 2021, 229: 116054.
[43]
An Y, Tian Y, Wei H, et al. Porosity- and graphitization- controlled fabrication of nanoporous Silicon@Carbon for lithium storage and its conjugation with MXene for lithium- metal anode. Adv Funct Mater 2020, 30: 1908721.
[44]
Cao L, Huang T, Cui M, et al. Facile and efficient fabrication of branched Si@C anode with superior electrochemical performance in LIBs. Small 2021, 17: 2005997.
File
40145_2021_498_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (960.1 KB)
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 25 January 2021
Revised: 19 April 2021
Accepted: 09 May 2021
Published: 13 July 2021
Issue date: October 2021

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2021

Acknowledgements

We thank the Shenzhen Science and Technology Projects (No. JCYJ20180306172957494) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 5187224) for financial support.

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Return