AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
View PDF
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Using PyC modified 3D carbon fiber to reinforce UHTC under low temperature sintering without pressure

Baihe DUaYuan CHENGa( )Liancai XUNaShuchang ZHANGaJing TONGaQingrong LVbShanbao ZHOUaPing HUa( )Xinghong ZHANGa
National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Advanced Composites in Special Environments, and Center for Composite Materials and Structures, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, China
School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Show Author Information


Finding the optimum balance between strength and toughness, as well as acquiring reliable thermal shock resistance and oxidation resistance, has always been the most concerned topic in the discussion of ultra-high temperature ceramic composites. Herein, PyC modified 3D carbon fiber is used to reinforce ultra-high temperature ceramic (UHTC). The macroscopic block composite with large size is successfully fabricated through low temperature sintering at 1300 ℃ without pressure. The prepared PyC modified 3D Cf/ZrC-SiC composites simultaneously possess excellent physical and chemical stability under the synergistic effect of PyC interface layer and low temperature sintering without pressure. The fracture toughness is increased in magnitude to 13.05 ± 1.72 MPa·m1/2 accompanied by reliable flexural strength of 251 ± 27 MPa. After rapid thermal shock spanning from room temperature (RT) to 1200 ℃, there are no visible surface penetrating cracks, spalling, or structural fragmentation. The maximum critical temperature difference reaches 875 ℃, which is nearly three times higher than that of traditional monolithic ceramics. The haunting puzzle of intrinsic brittleness and low damage tolerance are resolved fundamentally. Under the protection of PyC interface layer, the carbon fibers around oxide layer and matrix remain structure intact after static oxidation at 1500 ℃ for 30 min. The oxide layer has reliable physical and chemical stability and resists the erosion from fierce oxidizing atmosphere, ensuring the excellent oxidation resistance of the composites. In a sense, the present work provides promising universality in designability and achievement of 3D carbon fiber reinforced ceramic composites.


Li WJ, Huang J, Zhang ZW, et al. Evaluation method and key factor analysis for thermal protection performance of multifunctional integrated ablative materials. Polym Compos 2020, 41: 5043-5058.
Shi YA, Zha BL, Su QD, et al. Thermal performance and ablation characteristics of C/C-SiC for thermal protection of hypersonic vehicle. J Eur Ceram Soc 2021, 41: 5427-5436.
Zhao YP, Huang HM. Numerical study of hypersonic surface heat flux with different air species models. Acta Astronaut 2020, 169: 84-93.
Yang XF, Gui YW, Xiao GM, et al. Reacting gas-surface interaction and heat transfer characteristics for high- enthalpy and hypersonic dissociated carbon dioxide flow. Int J Heat Mass Transf 2020, 146: 118869.
Li Y, Zhang L, He RJ, et al. Integrated thermal protection system based on C/SiC composite corrugated core sandwich plane structure. Aerosp Sci Technol 2019, 91: 607-616.
Jia DC, Liang B, Yang ZH, et al. Metastable Si-B-C-N ceramics and their matrix composites developed by inorganic route based on mechanical alloying: Fabrication, microstructures, properties and their relevant basic scientific issues. Prog Mater Sci 2018, 98: 1-67.
Savino R, Criscuolo L, di Martino GD, et al. Aero-thermo- chemical characterization of ultra-high-temperature ceramics for aerospace applications. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 2937-2953.
Senkov ON, Gorsse S, Miracle DB. High temperature strength of refractory complex concentrated alloys. Acta Mater 2019, 175: 394-405.
Duan LY, Luo L, Liu LP, et al. Ablation of C/SiC-HfC composite prepared by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis in plasma wind tunnel. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 393-402.
Cheng YH, Liu YX, An YM, et al. High thermal- conductivity rGO/ZrB2-SiC ceramics consolidated from ZrB2-SiC particles decorated GO hybrid foam with enhanced thermal shock resistance. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 2760-2767.
Xu BS, Hong CQ, Zhang XH, et al. Nanostructured hybrid carbon nanotube/Ultrahigh-temperature ceramic heterostructures: Microstructure evolution and forming mechanism. J Am Ceram Soc 2015, 98: 3699-3705.
Xu BS, Zhou SB, Hong CQ, et al. Mechanical enhancement of lightweight ZrB2-modified carbon-bonded carbon fiber composites with self-grown carbon nanotubes. Carbon 2016, 102: 487-493.
Du B, Liu HH, Chu YH. Fabrication and characterization of polymer-derived high-entropy carbide ceramic powders. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 4063-4068.
Philips NR, Carl M, Cunningham NJ. New opportunities in refractory alloys. Metall Mater Trans A 2020, 51: 3299-3310.
Sciti D, Zoli L, Silvestroni L, et al. Design, fabrication and high velocity oxy-fuel torch tests of a Cf-ZrB2-fiber nozzle to evaluate its potential in rocket motors. Mater Des 2016, 109: 709-717.
Tian S, Zhou L, Liang ZT, et al. 2.5 D carbon/carbon composites modified by in situ grown hafnium carbide nanowires for enhanced electromagnetic shielding properties and oxidation resistance. Carbon 2020, 161: 331-340.
Uhlmann F, Wilhelmi C, Schmidt-Wimmer S, et al. Preparation and characterization of ZrB2 and TaC containing Cf/SiC composites via Polymer-Infiltration- Pyrolysis process. J Eur Ceram Soc 2017, 37: 1955-1960.
Zhang ZF, Sha JJ, Zu YF, et al. Fabrication and mechanical properties of self-toughening ZrB2-SiC composites from in situ reaction. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 527-536.
Li Y, Meng XJ, Jia Y, et al. Properties of C/C-ZrC composites prepared by precursor infiltration and pyrolysis with a meltable precursor. Mater Res Express 2019, 6: 085632.
Tang SF, Hu CL. Design, preparation and properties of carbon fiber reinforced ultra-high temperature ceramic composites for aerospace applications: A review. J Mater Sci Technol 2017, 33: 117-130.
Li Y, Chen SA, Ma X, et al. Influence of preparation temperature on the properties of C/ZrC composites. J Alloys Compd 2017, 690: 206-211.
Yoo HI, Kim HS, Hong BG, et al. Hafnium carbide protective layer coatings on carbon/carbon composites deposited with a vacuum plasma spray coating method. J Eur Ceram Soc 2016, 36: 1581-1587.
Li CY, Li GB, Ouyang HB, et al. ZrB2 particles reinforced glass coating for oxidation protection of carbon/carbon composites. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 102-111.
Jin XC, Fan XL, Lu CS, et al. Advances in oxidation and ablation resistance of high and ultra-high temperature ceramics modified or coated carbon/carbon composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 1-28.
Li F, Huang X, Liu JX, et al. Sol-gel derived porous ultra-high temperature ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 1-16.
Liu HH, Du B, Chu YH. Synthesis of the ternary metal carbide solid-solution ceramics by polymer-derived- ceramic route. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 2970-2974.
Silvestroni L, Kleebe HJ, Fahrenholtz WG, et al. Super- strong materials for temperatures exceeding 2000 ℃. Sci Rep 2017, 7: 1-8.
Tong YG, Zhu WT, Bai SX, et al. Thermal shock resistance of continuous carbon fiber reinforced ZrC based ultra-high temperature ceramic composites prepared via Zr-Si alloyed melt infiltration. Mater Sci Eng: A 2018, 735: 166-172.
Hu P, Cheng Y, Guo X, et al. Architectural engineering inspired method of preparing Cf/ZrC-SiC with graceful mechanical responses. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 70-78.
Cheng YH, An YM, Liu YX, et al. ZrB2-based “brick-and-mortar” composites achieving the synergy of superior damage tolerance and ablation resistance. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020, 12: 33246-33255.
Kováčová Z, Bača Ľ, Neubauer E, et al. Influence of sintering temperature, SiC particle size and Y2O3 addition on the densification, microstructure and oxidation resistance of ZrB2-SiC ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2016, 36: 3041-3049.
Sha JJ, Zhang ZF, Di SX, et al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of ZrB2-based ceramic composites with nano-sized SiC particles synthesized by in situ reaction. Mater Sci Eng: A 2017, 693: 145-150.
Kong DW, Wang QY, She TT, et al. Effects of temperature on flexural behavior and flaw sensitivity of ZrB2-SiC- graphite composite. J Alloys Compd 2019, 773: 905-912.
Shahedi Asl M, Nayebi B, Motallebzadeh A, et al. Nanoindentation and nanostructural characterization of ZrB2-SiC composite doped with graphite nano-flakes. Compos B: Eng 2019, 175: 107153.
Li SJ, Wei CC, Wang WW, et al. Fracture toughness and R-curve behavior of laminated ZrB2-SiC/SiCw ceramic. J Alloys Compd 2019, 784: 96-101.
Shahedi Asl M, Azizian-Kalandaragh Y, Ahmadi Z, et al. Spark plasma sintering of ZrB2-based composites co-reinforced with SiC whiskers and pulverized carbon fibers. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 2019, 83: 104989.
Baker B, Rubio V, Ramanujam P, et al. Development of a slurry injection technique for continuous fibre ultra-high temperature ceramic matrix composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 3927-3937.
Zoli L, Vinci A, Galizia P, et al. On the thermal shock resistance and mechanical properties of novel unidirectional UHTCMCs for extreme environments. Sci Rep 2018, 8: 9148.
Hu P, Cheng Y, Zhang DY, et al. From ferroconcrete to Cf/UHTC-SiC: A totally novel densification method and mechanism at 1300 ℃ without pressure. Compos B: Eng 2019, 174: 107023.
Hu P, Zhang DY, Dong S, et al. A novel vibration-assisted slurry impregnation to fabricate Cf/ZrB2-SiC composite with enhanced mechanical properties. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 798-805.
Leslie CJ, Boakye EE, Keller KA, et al. Development and characterization of continuous SiC fiber-reinforced HfB2-based UHTC matrix composites using polymer impregnation and slurry infiltration techniques. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2015, 12: 235-244.
Heidenreich B, Bamsey N, Shi Y, et al. Manufacture and test of C/C-SiC sandwich structures. CEAS Space J 2020, 12: 73-84.
Cheng YH. Construction and toughening mechanism of ZrB2-SiC-graphene biomimetic composite microstructure. Ph.D. Thesis. Harbin (China): Harbin Institute of Technology, 2019.
Gui KX. Low-temperature densification and mechanism of ZrB2-SiC-Csf composites. Ph.D. Thesis. Harbin (China): Harbin Institute of Technology, 2017.
Davidge RW, Tappin G. The effective surface energy of brittle materials. J Mater Sci 1968, 3: 165-173.
Zimmermann JW, Hilmas GE, Fahrenholtz WG. Thermal shock resistance of ZrB2 and ZrB2-30% SiC. Mater Chem Phys 2008, 112: 140-145.
Sha JJ, Li J, Wang SH, et al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot-pressed ZrC-Ti-CNTs composites. Mater Des 2016, 107: 520-528.
Li CY, Li GB, Ouyang HB, et al. Microstructure and properties of C/C-ZrC composites prepared by hydrothermal deposition combined with carbothermal reduction. J Alloys Compd 2018, 741: 323-330.
Hu P, Gui KX, Hong WH, et al. High-performance ZrB2-SiC-Cf composite prepared by low-temperature hot pressing using nanosized ZrB2 powder. J Eur Ceram Soc 2017, 37: 2317-2324.
He QC, Lu JH, Wang YW, et al. Effects of joint processes of CLVD and PIP on the microstructure and mechanical properties of C/C-ZrC composites. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 17429-17435.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 871-884
Cite this article:
DU B, CHENG Y, XUN L, et al. Using PyC modified 3D carbon fiber to reinforce UHTC under low temperature sintering without pressure. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2021, 10(4): 871-884.








Web of Science





Received: 01 April 2021
Revised: 18 April 2021
Accepted: 06 May 2021
Published: 05 August 2021
© The Author(s) 2021

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit