AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
View PDF
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Effects of particle size of dielectric fillers on the output performance of piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators

Xiao MENGaZhuo ZHANGaDabin LINa( )Weiguo LIUaShun ZHOUaShaobo GEaYongming SUaChang PENGbLin ZHANGc( )
School of Opto-electronical Engineering, Xi’an Technological University, Xi’an 710021, China
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education & International Center for Dielectric Research, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic and Information Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
Show Author Information


Recently, piezoelectric/triboelectric nanogenerators based on piezoelectric composite materials have been intensively studied to achieve high electrical output performance. In this work, flexible BaTiO3 (BT)/PDMS nanocomposite films with various sizes and concentrations were fabricated and used as the nanogenerators. The influence of dielectric properties on the electrical output of nanogenerators was studied as well as the structure of the composites. The dielectric constant increased from 6.5 to 8 with the concentration of BT nanoparticles and decreased with the frequency from 102 to 106 Hz. Furthermore, the dielectric constant showed 11% decrease with the temperature range from 30 to 180 ℃. It was found that the concentration of BT nanoparticles has promoted the electrical output of nanogenerators. The output voltage and current are all enhanced with the BT nanoparticles, which reached 200 V and 0.24 μA in TENG with 40 wt% BT nanoparticles, respectively. The selected device exhibited the power of 0.16 mW and employed to demonstrate its ability to power wearable/portable electronics by lighting the LEDs.


Von Buren T, Mitcheson PD, Green TC, et al. Optimization of inertial micropower Generators for human walking motion. IEEE Sensor J 2006, 6: 28-38.
Bai P, Zhu G, Lin ZH, et al. Integrated multilayered triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting biomechanical energy from human motions. ACS Nano 2013, 7: 3713-3719.
Yang WQ, Chen J, Zhu G, et al. Harvesting energy from the natural vibration of human walking. ACS Nano 2013, 7: 11317-11324.
Sari I, Balkan T, Kulah H. An electromagnetic micro power generator for wideband environmental vibrations. Sensor Actuat A: Phys 2008, 145-146: 405-413.
Yang WQ, Chen J, Jing QS, et al. 3D stack integrated triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting vibration energy. Adv Funct Mater 2014, 24: 4090-4096.
Xie YN, Wang SH, Lin L, et al. Rotary triboelectric nanogenerator based on a hybridized mechanism for harvesting wind energy. ACS Nano 2013, 7: 7119-7125.
Su YJ, Wen XN, Zhu G, et al. Hybrid triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water wave energy and as a self-powered distress signal emitter. Nano Energy 2014, 9: 186-195.
Parvez AN, Rahaman MH, Kim HC, et al. Optimization of triboelectric energy harvesting from falling water droplet onto wrinkled polydimethylsiloxane-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite surface. Compos Part B: Eng 2019, 174: 106923.
Fan X, Chen J, Yang J, et al. Ultrathin, rollable, paper- based triboelectric nanogenerator for acoustic energy harvesting and self-powered sound recording. ACS Nano 2015, 9: 4236-4243.
Fan FR, Tian ZQ, Zhong LW. Flexible triboelectric generator. Nano Energy 2012, 1: 328-334.
Zhang KW, Zhang L, Fu LL, et al. Magnetostrictive resonators as sensors and actuators. Sensor Actuat A: Phys 2013, 200: 2-10.
Dagdeviren C, Joe P, Tuzman OL, et al. Recent progress in flexible and stretchable piezoelectric devices for mechanical energy harvesting, sensing and actuation. Extrem Mech Lett 2016, 9: 269-281.
Miao P, Mitcheson PD, Holmes AS, et al. MEMS inertial power generators for biomedical applications. Microsyst Technol 2006, 12: 1079-1083.
Narita F, Fox M. A review on piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, and magnetoelectric materials and device technologies for energy harvesting applications. Adv Eng Mater 2018, 20: 1700743.
Wang ZL, Song J. Piezoelectric nanogenerators based on zinc oxide nanowire arrays. Science 2006, 312: 242-246.
Wang ZL. Triboelectric nanogenerators as new energy technology and self-powered sensors—Principles, problems and perspectives. Faraday Discuss 2014, 176: 447-458.
Niu SM, Wang SH, Lin L, et al. Theoretical study of contact-mode triboelectric nanogenerators as an effective power source. Energy Environ Sci 2013, 6: 3576.
Wang SH, Lin L, Xie YN, et al. Sliding-triboelectric nanogenerators based on in-plane charge-separation mechanism. Nano Lett 2013, 13: 2226-2233.
Yang Y, Zhou YS, Zhang HL, et al. A single-electrode based triboelectric nanogenerator as self-powered tracking system. Adv Mater 2013, 25: 6594-6601.
Wang SH, Xie YN, Niu SM, et al. Freestanding triboelectric- layer-based nanogenerators for harvesting energy from a moving object or human motion in contact and non-contact modes. Adv Mater 2014, 26: 2818-2824.
Song YH, Shi ZQ, Hu GH, et al. Recent advances in cellulose-based piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators for energy harvesting: A review. J Mater Chem A 2021, 9: 1910-1937.
Maiti S, Karan SK, Kim JK, et al. Nature driven bio- piezoelectric/triboelectric nanogenerator as next-generation green energy harvester for smart and pollution free society. Adv Energy Mater 2019, 9: 1803027.
Chen XX, Ren ZY, Han MD, et al. Hybrid energy cells based on triboelectric nanogenerator: From principle to system. Nano Energy 2020, 75: 104980.
Chen C, Bai ZK, Cao YZ, et al. Enhanced piezoelectric performance of BiCl3/PVDF nanofibers-based nanogenerators. Compos Sci Technol 2020, 192: 108100.
Hu PH, Yan LL, Zhao CX, et al. Double-layer structured PVDF nanocomposite film designed for flexible nanogenerator exhibiting enhanced piezoelectric output and mechanical property. Compos Sci Technol 2018, 168: 327-335.
Ko YH, Nagaraju G, Lee SH, et al. PDMS-based triboelectric and transparent nanogenerators with ZnO nanorod arrays. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014, 6: 6631-6637.
Jian G, Meng QZ, Jiao Y, et al. Enhanced performances of triboelectric nanogenerators by filling hierarchical flower-like TiO2 particles into polymethyl methacrylate film. Nanoscale 2020, 12: 14160-14170.
Lee DW, Jeong DG, Kim JH, et al. Polarization-controlled PVDF-based hybrid nanogenerator for an effective vibrational energy harvesting from human foot. Nano Energy 2020, 76: 105066.
Zhou ZJ, Li JL, Xia WM, et al. Enhanced piezoelectric and acoustic performances of poly(vinylidene fluoride- trifluoroethylene) films for hydroacoustic applications. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020, 22: 5711-5722.
Lu X, Hou L, Zhang L, et al. Piezoelectric-excited membrane for liquids viscosity and mass density measurement. Sensor Actuat A: Phys 2017, 261: 196-201.
Abolhasani MM, Shirvanimoghaddam K, Naebe M. PVDF/graphene composite nanofibers with enhanced piezoelectric performance for development of robust nanogenerators. Compos Sci Technol 2017, 138: 49-56.
Park H, Hyeon DY, Jung M, et al. Piezoelectric BaTiO3 microclusters and embossed ZnSnO3 microspheres-based monolayer for highly-efficient and flexible composite generator. Compos Part B: Eng 2020, 203: 108476.
He XM, Mu XJ, Wen Q, et al. Flexible and transparent triboelectric nanogenerator based on high performance well-ordered porous PDMS dielectric film. Nano Res 2016, 9: 3714-3724.
Wang C, Li X, Hu H, et al. Monitoring of the central blood pressure waveform via a conformal ultrasonic device. Nat Biomed Eng 2018, 2: 687-695.
Hu H, Zhu X, Wang C, et al. Stretchable ultrasonic transducer arrays for three-dimensional imaging on complex surfaces. Sci Adv 2018, 4: eaar3979.
Briscoe J, Dunn S. Piezoelectric nanogenerators - a review of nanostructured piezoelectric energy harvesters. Nano Energy 2015, 14: 15-29.
Jiang W, Li H, Liu Z, et al. Fully bioabsorbable natural-materials-based triboelectric nanogenerators. Adv Mater 2018, 30: e1801895.
Park KI, Son JH, Hwang GT, et al. Highly-efficient, flexible piezoelectric PZT thin film nanogenerator on plastic substrates. Adv Mater 2014, 26: 2514-2520.
Sun Y, Liu Y, Zheng YD, et al. Enhanced energy harvesting ability of ZnO/PAN hybrid piezoelectric nanogenerators. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020, 12: 54936-54945.
Le AT, Ahmadipour M, Pung SY. A review on ZnO-based piezoelectric nanogenerators: Synthesis, characterization techniques, performance enhancement and applications. J Alloys Compd 2020, 844: 156172.
Zhuang YY, Li JL, Hu QY, et al. Flexible composites with Ce-doped BaTiO3/P(VDF-TrFE) nanofibers for piezoelectric device. Compos Sci Technol 2020, 200: 108386.
Patnam H, Dudem B, Alluri NR, et al. Piezo/triboelectric hybrid nanogenerators based on Ca-doped Barium zirconate titanate embedded composite polymers for wearable electronics. Compos Sci Technol 2020, 188: 107963.
Lu X, Zou XW, Shen JL, et al. Characterizations of P(VDF-HFP)-BaTiO3 nanocomposite films fabricated by a spin-coating process. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 17758-17766.
Wen F, Lou HY, Ye JF, et al. Preparation and energy storage performance of transparent dielectric films with two- dimensional platelets. Compos Sci Technol 2019, 182: 107759.
Shi KM, Huang XY, Sun B, et al. Cellulose/BaTiO3 aerogel paper based flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators and the electric coupling with triboelectricity. Nano Energy 2019, 57: 450-458.
Lu X, Zhang L, Talebinezhad H, et al. Effects of CuO additive on the dielectric property and energy-storage performance of BaTiO3-SiO2 ceramic-glass composite. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 16977-16983.
Guo HL, Wu Q, Sun HJ, et al. Organic phosphonic acid-modified BaTiO3/P(VDF-TrFE) composite with high output in both voltage and power for flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators. Mater Today Energy 2020, 17: 100489.
Su HX, Wang XB, Li CY, et al. Enhanced energy harvesting ability of polydimethylsiloxane-BaTiO3-based flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator for tactile imitation application. Nano Energy 2021, 83: 105809.
Sriphan S, Nawanil C, Vittayakorn N. Influence of dispersed phase morphology on electrical and fatigue properties of BaTiO3/PDMS nanogenerator. Ceram Int 2018, 44: S38-S42.
Tang ZH, Gao ZW, Jia SH, et al. Graphene-based polymer bilayers with superior light-driven properties for remote construction of 3D structures. Adv Sci 2017, 4: 1600437.
Kausar A. Polydimethylsiloxane-based nanocomposite: Present research scenario and emergent future trends. Polym - Plast Technol Mater 2020, 59: 1148-1166.
Zhang L, Wu PX, Li YT, et al. Preparation process and dielectric properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3-P(VDF-CTFE) nanocomposites. Compos Part B: Eng 2014, 56: 284-289.
Zhang L, Zhang L, Shan X, et al. Process and microstructure to achieve ultra-high dielectric constant in ceramic-polymer composites. Sci Rep 2016, 6: 35763.
Shan XB, Zhang L, Yang XQ, et al. Dielectric composites with a high and temperature-independent dielectric constant. J Adv Ceram 2012, 1: 310-316.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 991-1000
Cite this article:
MENG X, ZHANG Z, LIN D, et al. Effects of particle size of dielectric fillers on the output performance of piezoelectric and triboelectric nanogenerators. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2021, 10(5): 991-1000.








Web of Science






Received: 26 January 2021
Revised: 31 March 2021
Accepted: 09 April 2021
Published: 25 May 2021
© The Author(s) 2021

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit