AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
View PDF
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Microstructure refinement-homogenization and flexural strength improvement of Al2O3 ceramics fabricated by DLP-stereolithography integrated with chemical precipitation coating process

Guanglin NIEa( )Yehua LIaPengfei SHENGaFei ZUOaHaolin WUaLeiren LIUaXin DENGaYiwang BAObShanghua WUa( )
School of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China
State Key Laboratory of Green Building Materials, China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024, China
Show Author Information


In this study, the chemical precipitation coating (CP) process was creatively integrated with DLP-stereolithography based 3D printing for refining and homogenizing the microstructure of 3D printed Al2O3 ceramic. Based on this novel approach, Al2O3 powder was coated with a homogeneous layer of amorphous Y2O3, with the coated Al2O3 powder found to make the microstructure of 3D printed Al2O3 ceramic more uniform and refined, as compared with the conventional mechanical mixing (MM) of Al2O3 and Y2O3 powders. The grain size of Al2O3 in Sample CP is 64.44% and 51.43% lower than those in the monolithic Al2O3 ceramic and Sample MM, respectively. Sample CP has the highest flexural strength of 455.37±32.17 MPa, which is 14.85% and 25.45% higher than those of Samples MM and AL, respectively; also Sample CP has the highest Weibull modulus of 16.88 among the three kinds of samples. Moreover, the fine grained Sample CP has a close thermal conductivity to the coarse grained Sample MM because of the changes in morphology of Y3Al5O12 phase from semi-connected (Sample MM) to isolated (Sample CP). Finally, specially designed fin-type Al2O3 ceramic heat sinks were successfully fabricated via the novel integrated process, which has been proven to be an effective method for fabricating complex-shaped Al2O3 ceramic components with enhanced flexural strength and reliability.


Ge R, Zhang Y, Liu YJ, et al. Effect of Gd2O3 addition on mechanical, thermal and shielding properties of Al2O3 ceramics. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 2017, 28: 5898-5905.
Dong GC, Chen X, Zhang XJ, et al. Thermal fatigue behaviour of Al2O3-DBC substrates under high temperature cyclic loading. Solder Surf Mo Technol 2010, 22: 43-48.
Dos Santos WN, Paulin Filho PI, Taylor R. Effect of addition of niobium oxide on the thermal conductivity of alumina. J Eur Ceram Soc 1998, 18: 807-811.
Wu HD, Liu W, Lin LF, et al. Preparation of alumina- toughened zirconia via 3D printing and liquid precursor infiltration: Manipulation of the microstructure, the mechanical properties and the low temperature aging behavior. J Mater Sci 2019, 54: 7447-7459.
Baklouti S, Bouaziz J, Chartier T, et al. Binder burnout and evolution of the mechanical strength of dry-pressed ceramics containing poly(vinyl alcohol). J Eur Ceram Soc 2001, 21: 1087-1092.
Xie R, Zhang D, Zhang XY, et al. Gelcasting of alumina ceramics with improved green strength. Ceram Int 2012, 38: 6923-6926.
Liu W, Xie Z. Pressureless sintering behavior of injection molded alumina ceramics. Sci Sinter 2014, 46: 3-13.
He RX, Liu W, Wu ZW, et al. Fabrication of complex- shaped zirconia ceramic parts via a DLP-stereolithography- based 3D printing method. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 3412-3416.
Wu HD, Liu W, He RX, et al. Fabrication of dense zirconia-toughened alumina ceramics through a stereolithography-based additive manufacturing. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 968-972.
Singh S, Ramakrishna S, Singh R. Material issues in additive manufacturing: A review. J Manuf Process 2017, 25: 185-200.
Song X, Chen Y, Lee TW, et al. Ceramic fabrication using Mask-Image-Projection-based Stereolithography integrated with tape-casting. J Manuf Process 2015, 20: 456-464.
Komissarenko DA, Sokolov PS, Evstigneeva AD, et al. Rheological and curing behavior of acrylate-based suspensions for the DLP 3D printing of complex zirconia parts. Materials 2018, 11: 2350.
Chen ZW, Li ZY, Li JJ, et al. 3D printing of ceramics: A review. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 661-687.
Felzmann R, Gruber S, Mitteramskogler G, et al. Lithography-based additive manufacturing of cellular ceramic structures. Adv Eng Mater 2012, 14: 1052-1058.
Griffith ML, Halloran JW. Freeform fabrication of ceramics via stereolithography. J Am Ceram Soc 1996, 79: 2601-2608.
Zhou MP, Liu W, Wu HD, et al. Preparation of a defect-free alumina cutting tool via additive manufacturing based on stereolithography—Optimization of the drying and debinding processes. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 11598-11602.
Santoliquido O, Colombo P, Ortona A. Additive Manufacturing of ceramic components by Digital Light Processing: A comparison between the “bottom-up” and the “top-down” approaches. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 2140-2148.
Shuai XG, Zeng Y, Li PR, et al. Fabrication of fine and complex lattice structure Al2O3 ceramic by digital light processing 3D printing technology. J Mater Sci 2020, 55: 6771-6782.
Li H, Liu YS, Liu YS, et al. Influence of vacuum debinding temperature on microstructure and mechanical properties of three-dimensional-printed alumina via stereolithography. 3D Print Addit Manuf 2020, 7: 8-18.
An D, Li HZ, Xie ZP, et al. Additive manufacturing and characterization of complex Al2O3 parts based on a novel stereolithography method. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2017, 14: 836-844.
An D, Liu W, Xie ZP, et al. A strategy for defects healing in 3D printed ceramic compact via cold isostatic pressing: Sintering kinetic window and microstructure evolution. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 2263-2271.
Zhang S, Sha N, Zhao Z. Surface modification of α-Al2O3 with dicarboxylic acids for the preparation of UV-curable ceramic suspensions. J Eur Ceram Soc 2017, 37: 1607-1616.
Schwentenwein M, Homa J. Additive manufacturing of dense alumina ceramics. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2015, 12: 1-7.
Liu W, Wu HD, Tian Z, et al. 3D printing of dense structural ceramic microcomponents with low cost: Tailoring the sintering kinetics and the microstructure evolution. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 2257-2262.
Chartier T, Chaput C, Doreau F, et al. Stereolithography of structural complex ceramic parts. J Mater Sci 2002, 37: 3141-3147.
Wu HD, Cheng YL, Liu W, et al. Effect of the particle size and the debinding process on the density of alumina ceramics fabricated by 3D printing based on stereolithography. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 17290-17294.
Li KH, Zhao Z. The effect of the surfactants on the formulation of UV-curable SLA alumina suspension. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 4761-4767.
Deng LJ, Qiao L, Zheng JW, et al. Injection molding, debinding and sintering of ZrO2 ceramic modified by silane couping agent. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 1566-1573.
Ai YL, Xie XH, He W, et al. Effect of nano-Al2O3 on the microstructure and properties of ZrO2 dental materials prepared by microwave sintering. Appl Mech Mater 2014, 618: 3-7.
Miyazakia H, Iwakiri S, Hirao K, et al. Effect of high temperature cycling on both crack formation in ceramics and delamination of copper layers in silicon nitride active metal brazing substrates. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 5080-5088.
McCune RC, Donlon WT, Ku RC. Yttrium segregation and YAG precipitation at surfaces of yttrium-doped α-Al2O3. J Am Ceram Soc 1986, 69: 196-196.
Moya EG, Moya F, Lesage B, et al. Yttrium diffusion in α-alumina single crystal. J Eur Ceram Soc 1998, 18: 591-594.
Galusek D, Ghillányová K, Sedláček J, et al. The influence of additives on microstrucutre of sub-micron alumina ceramics prepared by two-stage sintering. J Eur Ceram Soc 2012, 32: 1965-1970.
Maca K, Pouchlý V, Bodišová K, et al. Densification of fine-grained alumina ceramics doped by magnesia, yttria and zirconia evaluated by two different sintering models. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 4363-4372.
Wang RF, Zhang DM, Zhuang OY, et al. Effect of Y2O3 content on the properties of alumina-based ceramic cores. Appl Mech Mater 2014, 488-489: 145-149.
Song IG, Kim JS. Enhancement of the mechanical properties of alumina ceramics by a granulation process and Y2O3 additive. Korean J Met Mater 2015, 53: 262-269.
Lach R, Wojteczko K, Dudek A, et al. Fracture behaviour of alumina-YAG particulate composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 3373-3378.
Wang HZ, Gao L, Shen ZJ, et al. Mechanical properties and microstructures of Al2O3-5 vol.% YAG composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2001, 21: 779-783.
Wang HZ, Gao L. Preparation and microstructure of polycrystalline Al2O3-YAG composites. Ceram Int 2001, 27: 721-723.
Lach R, Haberko K, Bućko MM, et al. Alumina/YAG 20 vol% composites prepared by the dawsonite thermal decomposition. Ceram Int 2015, 41: 10488-10493.
Sang YH, Qin HM, Liu H, et al. Partial wet route for YAG powders synthesis leading to transparent ceramic: A core-shell solid-state reaction process. J Eur Ceram Soc 2013, 33: 2617-2623.
Liu YT, Liu RZ, Liu ML. Improved sintering ability of SiC ceramics from SiC@Al2O3 core-shell nanoparticles prepared by a slow precipitation method. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 8032-8036.
Liu W, Xie ZP, Liu GW, et al. Novel preparation of translucent alumina ceramics induced by doping additives via chemical precipitation method. J Am Ceram Soc 2011, 94: 3211-3215.
Qiao L, Zhou HP, Li CW. Microstructure and thermal conductivity of spark plasma sintering AlN ceramics. Mater Sci Eng: B 2003, 99: 102-105.
Lee HM, Bharathi K, Kim DK. Processing and characterization of aluminum nitride ceramics for high thermal conductivity. Adv Eng Mater 2014, 16: 655-669.
Richefeu V, El Youssoufi MS, Azéma E, et al. Force transmission in dry and wet granular media. Powder Technol 2009, 190: 258-263.
Hayakawa D, Hirano T, Mitani S, et al. Measurement of surface tension of liquid microdroplets through observation of droplet collision. Jpn J Appl Phys 2017, 56: 07JB02.
Vrolijk JWGA, Willems JWMM, Metselaar R. Coprecipitation of yttrium and aluminium hydroxide for preparation of yttrium aluminium garnet. J Eur Ceram Soc 1990, 6: 47-51.
Palmero P, de Esnouf C, Montanaro L, et al. Influence of the co-precipitation temperature on phase evolution in yttrium-aluminium oxide materials. J Eur Ceram Soc 2005, 25: 1565-1573.
Wang W, Xie ZP, Liu GW, et al. Fabrication of blue-colored zirconia ceramics via heterogeneous nucleation method. Cryst Growth Des 2009, 9: 4373-4377.
Lin LF, Wu HD, Xu YR, et al. Fabrication of dense aluminum nitride ceramics via digital light processing- based stereolithography. Mater Chem Phys 2020, 249: 122969.
US-ASTM. ASTM C1161-13 Standard test method for acid and base number by color-indicator titration. ASTM, 2013.
US-ASTM. ASTM C1461-13 Standard test method for thermal diffusivity by the flash method. ASTM, 2013.
Munro M. Evaluated material properties for a sintered alpha-alumina. J Am Ceram Soc 1997, 80: 1919-1928.
dos Santos WN, Paulin Filho PI, Taylor R. Effect of addition of niobium oxide on the thermal conductivity of alumina. J Eur Ceram Soc 1998, 18: 807-811.
Kuwano Y, Suda K, Ishizawa N, et al. Crystal growth and properties of (Lu,Y)3Al5O12. J Cryst Growth 2004, 260: 159-165.
Aggarwal RL, Ripin DJ, Ochoa JR, et al. Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAIO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80-300K temperature range. J Appl Phys 2005, 98: 103514.
Zhu HB, Li H, Li ZX. Plasma sprayed TiB2-Ni cermet coatings: Effect of feedstock characteristics on the microstructure and tribological performance. Surf Coat Technol 2013, 235: 620-627.
Chen G, Wan J, He N, et al. Strengthening mechanisms based on reinforcement distribution uniformity for particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 2018, 28: 2395-2400.
Hayoz J, Bovet M, Pillo T, et al. Oxygen-segregation- controlled epitaxy of Y2O3 films on Nb(110). Appl Phys A 2000, 71: 615-618.
Barreca D, Battiston GA, Berto D, et al. Y2O3 thin films characterized by XPS. Surf Sci Spectra 2001, 8: 234-239.
Kosova N, Devyatkina E, Slobodyuk A, et al. Surface chemistry study of LiCoO2 coated with alumina. Solid State Ion 2008, 179: 1745-1749.
Chung K, Nenov NS, Park S, et al. Design of optimal organic materials system for ceramic suspension-based additive manufacturing. Adv Eng Mater 2019, 21: 1900445.
Xing ZW, Liu WW, Chen Y, et al. Effect of plasticizer on the fabrication and properties of alumina ceramic by stereolithography-based additive manufacturing. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 19939-19944.
Matsubara I, Paranthaman M, Allison SW, et al. Preparation of Cr-doped Y3Al5O12 phosphors by heterogeneous precipitation methods and their luminescent properties. Mater Res Bull 2000, 35: 217-224.
Dong Z, Coyle TW, Ken CE. Phase composition and microstructure of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) coatings prepared by suspension plasma spraying of Y2O3-Al2O3 powders. Surf Coat Technol 2013, 235: 303-309.
Fang JX, Thompson AM, Harmer MP, et al. Effect of yttrium and lanthanum on the final-stage sintering behavior of ultrahigh-purity alumina. J Am Ceram Soc 1997, 80: 2005-2012.
Sommer F, Kern F, El-Maghraby HF, et al. Effect of preparation route on the properties of slip-casted Al2O3/YAG composites. Ceram Int 2012, 38: 4819-4826.
Hansen N. Hall-Petch relation and boundary strengthening. Scr Mater 2004, 51: 801-806.
Armstrong RW. Grain size dependent alumina fracture mechanics stress intensity. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 2001, 19: 251-255.
Liu L, Maeda K, Onda T, et al. Microstructure and improved mechanical properties of Al2O3/Ba-β-Al2O3/ ZrO2 composites with YSZ addition. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 5113-5121.
ISO 20501:2019(E). Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics)-Weibull statistics for strength data. IOS, 2019.
Negahdari Z, Willert-Porada M, Scherm F. Thermal properties of homogenous lanthanum hexaaluminate/alumina composite ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2010, 30: 3103-3109.
Watari K, Hwang HJ, Toriyama M, et al. Effective sintering aids for low-temperature sintering of AlN ceramics. J Mater Res 1999, 14: 1409-1417.
Sumirat I, Ando Y, Shimamura S. Theoretical consideration of the effect of porosity on thermal conductivity of porous materials. J Porous Mater 2006, 13: 439-443.
Carson JK, Lovatt SJ, Tanner DJ, et al. An analysis of the influence of material structure on the effective thermal conductivity of theoretical porous materials using finite element simulations. Int J Refrig 2003, 26: 873-880.
Smith DS, Fayette S, Grandjean S, et al. Thermal resistance of grain boundaries in alumina ceramics and refractories. J Am Ceram Soc 2003, 86: 105-111.
Hsu HC, Tuan WH. Thermal characteristics of a two-phase composite. Adv Powder Technol 2016, 27: 929-934.
Boey F, Tok AIY, Lam YC, et al. On the effects of secondary phase on thermal conductivity of AlN ceramic substrates using a microstructural modeling approach. Mater Sci Eng: A 2002, 335: 281-289.
Hostaša J, Nečina V, Uhlířová T, et al. Effect of rare earth ions doping on the thermal properties of YAG transparent ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 53-58.
Kultayeva S, Ha JH, Malik R, et al. Effects of porosity on electrical and thermal conductivities of porous SiC ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 996-1004.
Li H, Liu YS, Liu YS, et al. Effect of sintering temperature in argon atmosphere on microstructure and properties of 3D printed alumina ceramic cores. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 220-231.
Onbattuvelli V, Atre S. Review of net shape fabrication of thermally conducting ceramics. Mater Manuf Process 2011, 26: 832-845.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 790-808
Cite this article:
NIE G, LI Y, SHENG P, et al. Microstructure refinement-homogenization and flexural strength improvement of Al2O3 ceramics fabricated by DLP-stereolithography integrated with chemical precipitation coating process. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2021, 10(4): 790-808.








Web of Science






Received: 29 September 2020
Revised: 26 February 2021
Accepted: 10 March 2021
Published: 05 August 2021
© The Author(s) 2021

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit