Defects in acceptor-doped perovskite piezoelectric materials have a significant impact on their electrical properties. Herein, the defect mediated evolution of piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of Fe-doped (Pb,Sr)(Zr,Ti)O3 (PSZT–Fe) piezoceramics with different treatments, including quenching, aging, de-aging, and poling, was investigated systematically. Oxygen vacancies with a cubic symmetry are preserved in the quenched PSZT–Fe ceramics, rendering them robust ferroelectric behaviors. In the aged PSZT–Fe polycrystals, defect dipole between Fe dopant and oxygen vacancy has the same orientation with spontaneous polarization PS, which enables the reversible domain switching and hence leads to the emergence of pinched polarization hysteresis and recoverable strain effect. And the defect dipoles can be gradually disrupted by bipolar electric field cycling, once again endowing the aged materials with representative ferroelectric properties. For the poled PSZT–Fe polycrystals, the defect dipoles are reoriented to be parallel to the applied poling field, and an internal bias field aligning along the same direction emerges simultaneously, being responsible for asymmetric hysteresis loops.
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51702252 and 51972005), the Natural Science Basic Research Program of Shaanxi (Grant No. 2020JQ-066), and State Grid Corporation of China Co., Ltd. (Grant Nos. SGGR0000DCJS2000678 and 5500-202024252A-0-0-00).
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