Journal Home > Volume 10 , issue 2

Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is becoming a promising method for fabricating highly complex ceramics owing to the arbitrary design and the infinite combination of materials. Insufficient density is one of the main problems with 3D printed ceramics, but concentrated descriptions of making dense ceramics are scarce. This review specifically introduces the principles of the four 3D printing technologies and focuses on the parameters of each technology that affect the densification of 3D printed ceramics, such as the performance of raw materials and the interaction between energy and materials. The technical challenges and suggestions about how to achieve higher ceramic density are presented subsequently. The goal of the presented work is to comprehend the roles of critical parameters in the subsequent 3D printing process to prepare dense ceramics that can meet the practical applications.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Dense ceramics with complex shape fabricated by 3D printing: A review

Show Author's information Zhe CHENaXiaohong SUNa( )Yunpeng SHANGa,bKunzhou XIONGa,bZhongkai XUaRuisong GUOaShu CAIaChunming ZHENGb( )
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Hollow-fiber Membrane Materials and Membrane Processes, Tiangong University, Tianjin 300387, China

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is becoming a promising method for fabricating highly complex ceramics owing to the arbitrary design and the infinite combination of materials. Insufficient density is one of the main problems with 3D printed ceramics, but concentrated descriptions of making dense ceramics are scarce. This review specifically introduces the principles of the four 3D printing technologies and focuses on the parameters of each technology that affect the densification of 3D printed ceramics, such as the performance of raw materials and the interaction between energy and materials. The technical challenges and suggestions about how to achieve higher ceramic density are presented subsequently. The goal of the presented work is to comprehend the roles of critical parameters in the subsequent 3D printing process to prepare dense ceramics that can meet the practical applications.

Keywords:

3D printing, dense ceramics, particle characteristics, process parameters
Received: 01 July 2020 Revised: 07 December 2020 Accepted: 14 December 2020 Published: 05 February 2021 Issue date: April 2021
References(148)
[1]
HF Shao, XY Yang, Y He, et al. Bioactive glass-reinforced bioceramic ink writing scaffolds: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical behavior. Biofabrication 2015, 7: 035010.
[2]
G Wang, VD Krstic. Rapid prototyping of ceramic components-review. Candian Ceramics 1998, 67: 52-58.
[3]
J Xu, LY Ding, PED Love. Digital reproduction of historical building ornamental components: From 3D scanning to 3D printing. Autom Constr 2017, 76: 85-96.
[4]
J Babilotte, V Guduric, D Le Nihouannen, et al. 3D printed polymer-mineral composite biomaterials for bone tissue engineering: Fabrication and characterization. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019, 107: 2579-2595.
[5]
ZC Eckel, CY Zhou, JH Martin, et al. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics. Science 2016, 351: 58-62.
[6]
TD Ngo, A Kashani, G Imbalzano, et al. Additive manufacturing (3D printing): A review of materials, methods, applications and challenges. Compos Part B: Eng 2018, 143: 172-196.
[7]
P Wu, J Wang, XY Wang. A critical review of the use of 3-D printing in the construction industry. Autom Constr 2016, 68: 21-31.
[8]
XY Zhang, WL Huo, JJ Liu, et al. 3D printing boehmite gel foams into lightweight porous ceramics with hierarchical pore structure. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 930-934.
[9]
ZL Cheng, F Ye, YS Liu, et al. Mechanical and dielectric properties of porous and wave-transparent Si3N4-Si3N4 composite ceramics fabricated by 3D printing combined with chemical vapor infiltration. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 399-407.
[10]
H Li, YS Liu, YS Liu, et al. Thermal treatment of γ-Al2O3 for the preparation of stereolithography 3D printing ceramic slurries. Front Mater 2019, 6: 295.
[11]
W Jiamin, C Annan, L Mengyue, et al. Preparation of ceramic materials used for selective laser sintering and related forming methods. Materials China 2017, 36: 575-582.
[12]
L Zhang, S Feih, S Daynes, et al. Pseudo-ductile fracture of 3D printed alumina triply periodic minimal surface structures. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 408-416.
[13]
XY Liu, B Zou, HY Xing, et al. The preparation of ZrO2-Al2O3 composite ceramic by SLA-3D printing and sintering processing. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 937-944.
[14]
S Zekoll, C Marriner-Edwards, AKO Hekselman, et al. Hybrid electrolytes with 3D bicontinuous ordered ceramic and polymer microchannels for all-solid-state batteries. Energy Environ Sci 2018, 11: 185-201.
[15]
W Qin, H Zijun, S Chencheng, et al Influencing factors and stability control of the mechanical properties of ceramic insulation tiles. Aerospace Material Technology 2010, 40: 77-79.
[16]
DL Bourell, HL Marcus, JW Barlow, et al. Multiple material systems for selective beam sintering. US Patent 4,944,817, 1990.
[17]
A Mazzoli. Selective laser sintering in biomedical engineering. Med Biol Eng Comput 2013, 51: 245-256.
[18]
Bourell D, Wohlert M, Harlan N, et al. Powder densification maps in selective laser sintering. Adv Eng Mater 2002, 4: 663-669.10.1002/1527-2648(20020916)4:9<663::AID-ADEM663>3.0.CO;2-1
[19]
AN Chen, JM Wu, K Liu, et al. High-performance ceramic parts with complex shape prepared by selective laser sintering: A review. Adv Appl Ceram 2018, 117: 100-117.
[20]
FY Niu, DJ Wu, GY Ma, et al. Rapid fabrication of eutectic ceramic structures by laser engineered net shaping. Procedia CIRP 2016, 42: 91-95.
[21]
K Shahzad, J Deckers, S Boury, et al. Preparation and indirect selective laser sintering of alumina/PA microspheres. Ceram Int 2012, 38: 1241-1247.
[22]
SY Fu, M Zhu, YF Zhu. Organosilicon polymer-derived ceramics: An overview. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 457-478.
[23]
P Tang. The manufacturing process and properties of porous cordierite ceramics by additive manufacturing. Thesis. Wuhan (China): Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 2016.
[24]
P Bertrand, F Bayle, C Combe, et al. Ceramic components manufacturing by selective laser sintering. Appl Surf Sci 2007, 254: 989-992.
[25]
A Mussatto, R Groarke, A A-Hameed, et al. Evaluation via powder metallurgy of nano-reinforced iron powders developed for selective laser melting applications. Mater Des 2019, 182: 108046.
[26]
M Krantz, H Zhang, J Zhu. Characterization of powder flow: Static and dynamic testing. Powder Technol 2009, 194: 239-245.
[27]
J Muñiz-Lerma, A Nommeots-Nomm, K Waters, et al. A comprehensive approach to powder feedstock characterization for powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: A case study on AlSi7Mg. Materials 2018, 11: 2386.
[28]
L Cordova, M Campos, T Tinga. Revealing the effects of powder reuse for selective laser melting by powder characterization. JOM 2019, 71: 1062-1072.
[29]
D Sofia, R Chirone, P Lettieri, et al. Selective laser sintering of ceramic powders with bimodal particle size distribution. Chem Eng Res Des 2018, 136: 536-547.
[30]
S Pfeiffer, K Florio, M Makowska, et al. Iron oxide doped spray dried aluminum oxide granules for selective laser sintering and melting of ceramic parts. Adv Eng Mater 2019, 21: 1801351.
[31]
Y Zou, CH Li, JA Liu, et al. Towards fabrication of high-performance Al2O3 ceramics by indirect selective laser sintering based on particle packing optimization. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 12654-12662.
[32]
L Hao, MM Savalani, Y Zhang, et al. Effects of material morphology and processing conditions on the characteristics of hydroxyapatite and high-density polyethylene biocomposites by selective laser sintering. P I Mech Eng L: J Mat 2006, 220: 125-137.
[33]
JP Kruth, P Mercelis, J van Vaerenbergh, et al. Binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyping J 2005, 11: 26-36.
[34]
JC Wang, H Dommati, SJ Hsieh. Review of additive manufacturing methods for high-performance ceramic materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2019, 103: 2627-2647.
[35]
P Feng, YW Deng, SL Duan, et al. Liquid phase sintered ceramic bone scaffolds by combined laser and furnace. Int J Mol Sci 2014, 15: 14574-14590.
[36]
S Yang. Fundamentals of Petrophysics. Beijing: Petroleum Industry Press, 2011.
[37]
E Koos. Capillary suspensions: Particle networks formed through the capillary force. Curr Opin Colloid Interface Sci 2014, 19: 575-584.
[38]
Y Zhou, K Hirao, Y Yamauchi, et al. Effects of heating rate and particle size on pulse electric current sintering of alumina. Scripta Mater 2003, 48: 1631-1636.
[39]
CJ Shuai, CD Gao, Y Nie, et al. Fabrication optimization of nanohydroxyapatite artificial bone scaffolds. Nano 2012, 7: 1250015.
[40]
HCH Ho, I Gibson, WL Cheung. Effects of energy density on morphology and properties of selective laser sintered polycarbonate. J Mater Process Technol 1999, 89-90: 204-210.
[41]
WH Fu, K Liu, J Liu, et al. SiC components via SLS combined with reaction sintering. China Mechanical Engineering 2018, 29: 2111-2118.
[42]
ZH Liu, JJ Nolte, JI Packard, et al. Selective laser sintering of high-density alumina ceramic parts. In: Proceedings of the 35th International MATADOR Conference, 2007: 351-354.
[43]
S Xia. Fabricating silicon carbide parts by selective laser sintering/cold isostatic pressing and post process. Master Thesis. Wuhan (China): Huazhong University of Science & Technology, 2016.
[44]
K Liu, YS Shi, CH Li, et al. Indirect selective laser sintering of epoxy resin-Al2O3 ceramic powders combined with cold isostatic pressing. Ceram Int 2014, 40: 7099-7106.
[45]
SFS Shirazi, S Gharehkhani, M Mehrali, et al. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: Selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing. Sci Technol Adv Mater 2015, 16: 033502.
[46]
EM Fayed, AS Elmesalamy, M Sobih, et al. Characterization of direct selective laser sintering of alumina. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2018, 94: 2333-2341.
[47]
HH Tang, ML Chiu, HC Yen. Slurry-based selective laser sintering of polymer-coated ceramic powders to fabricate high strength alumina parts. J Eur Ceram Soc 2011, 31: 1383-1388.
[48]
Y Yang, O Ragnvaldsen, Y Bai, et al. 3D non-isothermal phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution during selective laser sintering. npj Comput Mater 2019, 5, Article No. 81.
[49]
K Liu, HJ Sun, YL Tan, et al. Additive manufacturing of traditional ceramic powder via selective laser sintering with cold isostatic pressing. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2017, 90: 945-952.
[50]
J Liu, B Zhang, CZ Yan, et al. The effect of processing parameters on characteristics of selective laser sintering dental glass-ceramic powder. Rapid Prototyping J 2010, 16: 138-145.
[51]
K Liu, YS Shi, CH Li, et al. Indirect selective laser sintering of epoxy resin-Al2O3 ceramic powders combined with cold isostatic pressing. Ceram Int 2014, 40: 7099-7106.
[52]
JP Deckers, K Shahzad, L Cardon, et al. Shaping ceramics through indirect selective laser sintering. Rapid Prototyping J 2016, 22: 544-558.
[53]
LZ Jin, K Zhang, TT Xu, et al. The fabrication and mechanical properties of SiC/SiC composites prepared by SLS combined with PIP. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 20992-20999.
[54]
S Haijun, W Kaichen, G Wei, et al. New development of laser rapid for (min)g and its application in high performance materials processing. The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals 2013, 23: 1567-1574.
[55]
E Juste, F Petit, V Lardot, et al. Shaping of ceramic parts by selective laser melting of powder bed. J Mater Res 2014, 29: 2086-2094.
[56]
SL Sing, WY Yeong, FE Wiria, et al. Direct selective laser sintering and melting of ceramics: A review. Rapid Prototyping J 2017, 23: 611-623.
[57]
W Stopyra, J Kurzac, K Gruber, et al. Influence of laser power on the penetration depth and geometry of scanning tracks in selective laser melting. In: Proceedings of the SPIE 10159, Laser Technology 2016: Progress and Applications of Lasers, 2016: 101590R.
[58]
ZN Yang, F Jiang, XB Wang, et al. Effect of electropulsing treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of a deformed ZrTiAlV alloy. Materials 2019, 12: 3560.
[59]
ZT Yang, F Gao, HL Du, et al. Grain size engineered lead-free ceramics with both large energy storage density and ultrahigh mechanical properties. Nano Energy 2019, 58: 768-777.
[60]
ZG Wang, JH Ouyang, YH Ma, et al. Grain size dependence, mechanical properties and surface nanoeutectic modification of Al2O3-ZrO2 ceramic. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 14297-14304.
[61]
Q Liu, Y Danlos, B Song, et al. Effect of high-temperature preheating on the selective laser melting of yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic. J Mater Process Technol 2015, 222: 61-74.
[62]
WE Frazier. Metal additive manufacturing: A review. J Mater Eng Perform 2014, 23: 1917-1928.
[63]
A El-Desouky, M Carter, M Mahmoudi, et al. Influences of energy density on microstructure and consolidation of selective laser melted bismuth telluride thermoelectric powder. J Manuf Process 2017, 25: 411-417.
[64]
M Fateri, A Gebhardt. Process parameters development of selective laser melting of lunar regolith for on-site manufacturing applications. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2015, 12: 46-52.
[65]
K Zhang, TT Liu, WH Liao, et al. Experiment on selective laser melting forming of Al2O3 ceramics. Chinese J Lasers 2016, 43: 1002007.
[66]
J Wilkes, YC Hagedorn, W Meiners, et al. Additive manufacturing of ZrO2-Al2O3ceramic components by selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyping J 2013, 19: 51-57.
[67]
G Manob, L Lu, JYH Fuh, et al. Porous Li2O Al2O3SiO2(LAS) glass-ceramics prepared by selective laser melting and annealing. In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Cocoa Beach Conference on Advanced Ceramics and Composites: B: Ceramic Engineering and Science Proceedings, 2003, 24: 523-528.
[68]
Q Chen, G Guillemot, CA Gandin, et al. Numerical modelling of the impact of energy distribution and Marangoni surface tension on track shape in selective laser melting of ceramic material. Addit Manuf 2018, 21: 713-723.
[69]
Q Liu, B Song, HL Liao. Microstructure study on selective laser melting yttria stabilized zirconia ceramic with near IR fiber laser. Rapid Prototyping J 2014, 20: 346-354.
[70]
K Zhang, TT Liu, WH Liao, et al. Influence of laser parameters on the surface morphology of slurry-based Al2O3 parts produced through selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyping J 2018, 24: 333-341.
[71]
I Shishkovsky, I Yadroitsev, P Bertrand, et al. Alumina-zirconium ceramics synthesis by selective laser sintering/melting. Appl Surf Sci 2007, 254: 966-970.
[72]
HF Liu, HJ Su, ZL Shen, et al. Effect of scanning speed on the solidification process of Al2O3/GdAlO3/ZrO2 eutectic ceramics in a single track by selective laser melting. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 17252-17257.
[73]
A Ghazanfari, WB Li, MC Leu, et al. A novel freeform extrusion fabrication process for producing solid ceramic components with uniform layered radiation drying. Addit Manuf 2017, 15: 102-112.
[74]
L Wei, L Tingting, L Wenhe, et al. Study and application of selective laser sintering/melting technology of ceramic materials. Bulletin of the Chinese Ceramic Society 2014, 33: 2881-2890, 2896.
[75]
X Yan, YX Xu, Y Wu, et al. Effects of heat treatment on metal-ceramic combination of selective-laser-melted cobalt-chromium alloy. J Prosthet Dent 2018, 120: 319.
[76]
JR Guan, QP Wang, XW Zhang, et al. Selective laser melting of yttria-stabilized zirconia. Mater Res Express 2018, 6: 015402.
[77]
YY Wang, ZY Wang, SH Liu, et al. Additive manufacturing of silica ceramics from aqueous acrylamide based suspension. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 21328-21332.
[78]
D Liang, HE Ru-Jie, DN Fang. Development of additive manufacturing of ceramics. Adv Ceram 2017, 38: 231-247.
[79]
XF Wang, F Schmidt, D Hanaor, et al. Additive manufacturing of ceramics from preceramic polymers: A versatile stereolithographic approach assisted by thiol-ene click chemistry. Addit Manuf 2019, 27: 80-90.
[80]
FPW Melchels, J Feijen, DW Grijpma. A review on stereolithography and its applications in biomedical engineering. Biomaterials 2010, 31: 6121-6130.
[81]
CM González-Henríquez, MA Sarabia-Vallejos, J Rodriguez-Hernandez. Polymers for additive manufacturing and 4D-printing: Materials, methodologies, and biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci 2019, 94: 57-116.
[82]
XH Yu, RB Xing, ZX Peng, et al. To inhibit coffee ring effect in inkjet printing of light-emitting polymer films by decreasing capillary force. Chinese Chem Lett 2019, 30: 135-138.
[83]
ZW Wu, W Liu, HD Wu, et al. Research into the mechanical properties, sintering mechanism and microstructure evolution of Al2O3-ZrO2 composites fabricated by a stereolithography-based 3D printing method. Mater Chem Phys 2018, 207: 1-10.
[84]
XS Fu, B Zou, HY Xing, et al. Effect of printing strategies on forming accuracy and mechanical properties of ZrO2 parts fabricated by SLA technology. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 17630-17637.
[85]
G Varghese, M Moral, M Castro-García, et al. Fabrication and characterisation of ceramics via low-cost DLP 3D printing. Bol Soc Esp Ceram V 2018, 57: 9-18.
[86]
Q Lian, XQ Wu, DC Li, et al. Accurate printing of a zirconia molar crown bridge using three-part auxiliary supports and ceramic mask projection stereolithography. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 18814-18822.
[87]
J Saurwalt, J Opschoor, L Berkeveld. Powder metallurgical steel quality by additive manufacturing using VAT polymerisation technology. Petten: ECN, 2017.
[88]
F Yang. Ceramics fabrication using rapid prototyping of mask projection stereolithography. J Mech Eng 2017, 53: 138.
[89]
JW Halloran, V Tomeckova, S Gentry, et al. Photopolymerization of powder suspensions for shaping ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2011, 31: 2613-2619.
[90]
HY Xing, B Zou, QG Lai, et al. Preparation and characterization of UV curable Al2O3 suspensions applying for stereolithography 3D printing ceramic microcomponent. Powder Technol 2018, 338: 153-161.
[91]
ZW Chen, JJ Li, CB Liu, et al. Preparation of high solid loading and low viscosity ceramic slurries for photopolymerization-based 3D printing. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 11549-11557.
[92]
HD Wu, YL Cheng, W Liu, et al. Effect of the particle size and the debinding process on the density of alumina ceramics fabricated by 3D printing based on stereolithography. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 17290-17294.
[93]
RM German, SJ Park. Mathematical Relations in Particulate Materials Processing. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008.
[94]
CJ Bae, JW Halloran. Concentrated suspension-based additive manufacturing—Viscosity, packing density, and segregation. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 4299-4306.
[95]
M Dehurtevent, L Robberecht, JC Hornez, et al. Stereolithography: A new method for processing dental ceramics by additive computer-aided manufacturing. Dent Mater 2017, 33: 477-485.
[96]
SY Song, MS Park, D Lee, et al. Optimization and characterization of high-viscosity ZrO2 ceramic nanocomposite resins for supportless stereolithography. Mater Des 2019, 180: 107960.
[97]
RJ He, GJ Ding, KQ Zhang, et al. Fabrication of SiC ceramic architectures using stereolithography combined with precursor infiltration and pyrolysis. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 14006-14014.
[98]
WZ Zhou, DC Li, H Wang. A novel aqueous ceramic suspension for ceramic stereolithography. Rapid Prototyping J 2010, 16: 29-35.
[99]
WJ Wang, C Qian, ML Hu, et al. Optimisation of scanning parameters in stereolithography for dental zirconia ceramic fabrication. Adv Appl Ceram 2020, 119: 244-251.
[100]
Member GTEE. Appendix A: Orthogonal arrays and linear graphs: Tools for quality engineering. In: Taguchi's Quality Engineering Handbook. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007: 1523-1597.
[101]
HY Xing, B Zou, SS Li, et al. Study on surface quality, precision and mechanical properties of 3D printed ZrO2 ceramic components by laser scanning stereolithography. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 16340-16347.
[102]
RB Osman, AJ van der Veen, D Huiberts, et al. 3D-printing zirconia implants; a dream or a reality? An in-vitro study evaluating the dimensional accuracy, surface topography and mechanical properties of printed zirconia implant and discs. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2017, 75: 521-528.
[103]
H Li, YS Liu, YS Liu, et al. Effect of sintering temperature in argon atmosphere on microstructure and properties of 3D printed alumina ceramic cores. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 220-231.
[104]
J Deckers, J Vleugels, JP Kruthl. Additive manufacturing of ceramics: A review. J Ceram Sci Technol 2014, 5: 245-260.
[105]
V Padolskytė, D Gailevičius, L Jonušauskas, et al. 3D opto-structuring of ceramics at nanoscale. In: Proceedings of the SPIE 10675, 3D Printed Optics and Additive Photonic Manufacturing, 2018: 106750U.
[106]
DW Zhang, E Peng, R Borayek, et al. Controllable ceramic green-body configuration for complex ceramic architectures with fine features. Adv Funct Mater 2019, 29: 1807082.
[107]
R Liska, M Schuster, R Inführ, et al. Photopolymers for rapid prototyping. J Coat Technol Res 2007, 4: 505-510.
[108]
S Baumgartner, R Gmeiner, JA Schönherr, et al. Stereolithography-based additive manufacturing of lithium disilicate glass ceramic for dental applications. Mater Sci Eng C 2020, 116: 111180.
[109]
YS Zeng, LM Jiang, YZ Sun, et al. 3D-printing piezoelectric composite with honeycomb structure for ultrasonic devices. Micromachines 2020, 11: 713.
[110]
X Song, ZY Chen, LW Lei, et al. Piezoelectric component fabrication using projection-based stereolithography of barium titanate ceramic suspensions. Rapid Prototyping J 2017, 23: 44-53.
[111]
W Wang, JX Sun, BB Guo, et al. Fabrication of piezoelectric nano-ceramics via stereolithography of low viscous and non-aqueous suspensions. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 682-688.
[112]
J Cheng, Y Chen, JW Wu, et al. 3D printing of BaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics for a focused ultrasonic array. Sensors 2019, 19: 4078.
[113]
ZY Chen, X Song, LW Lei, et al. 3D printing of piezoelectric element for energy focusing and ultrasonic sensing. Nano Energy 2016, 27: 78-86.
[114]
JC Ruiz-Morales, EM Hernández-Rodríguez, P Acosta-Mora, et al. Prospective use of the 3D printing technology for the microstructural engineering of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell components. Bol Soc Esp Ceram Vidr 2014, 53: 213-216.
[115]
S Sardar, G Kale, M Ghadiri. Influence of processing conditions on the ionic conductivity of holmium zirconate (Ho2Zr2O7). Ceram Int 2020, 46: 11508-11514.
[116]
LY Wei, JJ Zhang, FY Yu, et al. A novel fabrication of yttria-stabilized-zirconia dense electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells by 3D printing technique. Int J Hydrogen Energ 2019, 44: 6182-6191.
[117]
BH Xing, CR Cao, WM Zhao, et al. Dense 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia electrolyte by DLP stereolithography. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 1418-1423.
[118]
BH Xing, YX Yao, X Meng, et al. Self-supported yttria-stabilized zirconia ripple-shaped electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells application by digital light processing three-dimension printing. Scripta Mater 2020, 181: 62-65.
[119]
J Zhang, C Lenser, NH Menzler, et al. Comparison of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte materials for operation at 500 ℃. Solid State Ionics 2020, 344: 115138.
[120]
H Seo, H Iwai, M Kishimoto, et al. Microextrusion printing for increasing electrode-electrolyte interface in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells. J Power Sources 2020, 450: 227682.
[121]
A Pesce, A Hornés, M Núñez, et al. 3D printing the next generation of enhanced solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells. J Mater Chem A 2020, 8: 16926-16932.
[122]
S Masciandaro, M Torrell, P Leone, et al. Three-dimensional printed yttria-stabilized zirconia self-supported electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell applications. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 9-16.
[123]
SX Zhou, H Mei, P Chang, et al. Molecule editable 3D printed polymer-derived ceramics. Coordin Chem Rev 2020, 422: 213486.
[124]
J Saroia, YN Wang, QH Wei, et al. A review on 3D printed matrix polymer composites: Its potential and future challenges. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 2020, 106: 1695-1721.
[125]
XB Li, JX Zhang, YS Duan, et al. Rheology and curability characterization of photosensitive slurries for 3D printing of Si3N4 ceramics. Appl Sci 2020, 10: 6438.
[126]
KW Gyak, NK Vishwakarma, YH Hwang, et al. 3D-printed monolithic SiCN ceramic microreactors from a photocurable preceramic resin for the high temperature ammonia cracking process. React Chem Eng 2019, 4: 1393-1399.
[127]
J Schmidt, AA Altun, M Schwentenwein, et al. Complex mullite structures fabricated via digital light processing of a preceramic polysiloxane with active alumina fillers. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 1336-1343.
[128]
M He, Y Zhao, Y Liu, et al. A 3D printable self-healing composite conductive polymer for sensitive temperature detection. Chinese Chem Lett 2020, 31: 826-830.
[129]
ZL Lu, JW Cao, ZQ Song, et al. Research progress of ceramic matrix composite parts based on additive manufacturing technology. Virtual Phys Prototyp 2019, 14: 333-348.
[130]
E Peng, DW Zhang, J Ding. Ceramic robocasting: Recent achievements, potential, and future developments. Adv Mater 2018, 30: e1802404.
[131]
H Ji, X Zhang, W Pei, et al. Research progress in ceramic 3D printing technology and material development. Journal of Materials Engineering 2018, 46: 19-28.
[132]
Y Li, Y Si, X Xiong, et al. Research and progress on three dimensional printing of ceramic materials. Journal of the Chinese Ceramic Society 2017, 45: 793-805.
[133]
CF Revelo, HA Colorado. 3D printing of kaolinite clay ceramics using the Direct Ink Writing (DIW) technique. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 5673-5682.
[134]
R Guo, H Qi, Y Chen, et al. Reverse microemulsion region and composition optimization of the AEO9/alcohol/alkane/ water system. Mater Res Bull 2003, 38: 1501-1507.
[135]
T Chen, AH Sun, CY Chu, et al. Rheological behavior of titania ink and mechanical properties of titania ceramic structures by 3D direct ink writing using high solid loading titania ceramic ink. J Alloys Compd 2019, 783: 321-328.
[136]
S Eqtesadi, A Motealleh, FH Perera, et al. Fabricating geometrically-complex B4C ceramic components by robocasting and pressureless spark plasma sintering. Scripta Mater 2018, 145: 14-18.
[137]
ZW Chen, ZY Li, JJ Li, et al. 3D printing of ceramics: A review. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 661-687.
[138]
KP Cai, B Román-Manso, JE Smay, et al. Geometrically complex silicon carbide structures fabricated by robocasting. J Am Ceram Soc 2012, 95: 2660-2666.
[139]
Z Zhao, GX Zhou, ZH Yang, et al. Direct ink writing of continuous SiO2 fiber reinforced wave-transparent ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 403-412.
[140]
YY Li, LT Li, B Li. Direct ink writing of 3-3 piezoelectric composite. J Alloys Compd 2015, 620: 125-128.
[141]
L Rueschhoff, W Costakis, M Michie, et al. Additive manufacturing of dense ceramic parts via direct ink writing of aqueous alumina suspensions. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2016, 13: 821-830.
[142]
RS Guo, HT Qi, ZF Yang, et al. Preparation and properties of the AEO9/alcohol/alkane/water reverse microemulsion ceramic inks. Ceram Int 2004, 30: 2259-2267.
[143]
HZ Jin, ZH Yang, DL Cai, et al. 3D printing of porous Si2N2O ceramics based on strengthened green bodies fabricated via strong colloidal gel. Mater Des 2020, 185: 108220.
[144]
LL Yang, XJ Zeng, A Ditta, et al. Preliminary 3D printing of large inclined-shaped alumina ceramic parts by direct ink writing. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 312-319.
[145]
OA Mohamed, SH Masood, JL Bhowmik. Analysis of wear behavior of additively manufactured PC-ABS parts. Mater Lett 2018, 230: 261-265.
[146]
I Buj-Corral, A Dominguez-Fernandez, A Gomez-Gejo. Effect of printing parameters on dimensional error and surface roughness obtained in direct ink writing (DIW) processes. Materials 2020, 13: 2157.
[147]
T Rosental, S Magdassi. A new approach to 3D printing dense ceramics by ceramic precursor binders. Adv Eng Mater 2019, 21: 1900604.
[148]
R Guo, H Qi, D Guo, et al. Preparation of high concentration ceramic inks for forming by jet-printing. J Eur Ceram Soc 2003, 23: 115-122.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 01 July 2020
Revised: 07 December 2020
Accepted: 14 December 2020
Published: 05 February 2021
Issue date: April 2021

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2020

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (52073212, 51772205, and 51772208) and General Program of Municipal Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (17JCYBJC17000, 17JCYBJC22700).

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return