AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
PDF (1.8 MB)
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3(Al,Ga)C2/Al2O3 composites prepared by in situ reactive hot pressing

Yuan FANGXiaohua LIUYuxia FENGJianfeng ZHU( )Wei JIANG
School of Material Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Functionalization for Inorganic Materials, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021, China
Show Author Information


In this study, Ti3(Al,Ga)C2/Al2O3 composites were successfully synthesized by in situ hot pressing at 1350 ℃ for 2 h using Ti, Al, TiC, and Ga2O3 as raw materials. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used for characterizing the phase identities and microstructures of the sintered composites. The dependence of the Vickers hardness and flexural strength on the Al2O3 content was found to be in single-peak type. Ti3(Al0.6,Ga0.4)C2/10.3vol%Al2O3 composite exhibited significantly improved mechanical properties. Vickers hardness and flexural strength of the composite reached 6.58 GPa and 527.11 MPa, which were 40% and 74% higher than those of Ti3AlC2, respectively. Formation of solid solution and incorporation of second phase of Al2O3 resulted in the opposite influence on the fracture toughness. Finally, the hardening and strengthening mechanisms were discussed in detail.


MW Barsoum, M Radovic. Elastic and mechanical properties of the MAX phases. Annu Rev Mater Res 2011, 41: 195-227.
Z Zhang, XM Duan, BF Qiu, et al. Preparation and anisotropic properties of textured structural ceramics: A review. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 289-332.
ZM Sun. Progress in research and development on MAX phases: A family of layered ternary compounds. Int Mater Rev 2011, 56: 143-166.
WB Yu, M Vallet, B Levraut, et al. Oxidation mechanisms in bulk Ti2AlC: Influence of the grain size. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 1820-1828.
YL Bai, N Srikanth, CK Chua, et al. Density functional theory study of Mn+1AXn phases: A review. Crit Rev Solid State Mater Sci 2019, 44: 56-107.
VJ Keast, S Harris, DK Smith. Prediction of the stability of the Mn+1AXn phases from first principles. Phys Rev B 2009, 80: 214113.
JW Liu, XB Zhou, P Tatarko, et al. Fabrication, microstructure, and properties of SiC/Al4SiC4 multiphase ceramics via an in situ formed liquid phase sintering. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 193-203.
A Talapatra, T Duong, W Son, et al. High-throughput combinatorial study of the effect of M site alloying on the solid solution behavior of M2AlC MAX phases. Phys Rev B 2016, 94: 104106.
JL Smialek. Oxygen diffusivity in alumina scales grown on Al-MAX phases. Corros Sci 2015, 91: 281-286.
NV Tzenov, MW Barsoum. Synthesis and characterization of Ti3AlC2. J Am Ceram Soc 2004, 83: 825-832.
XD He, YL Bai, CC Zhu, et al. General trends in the structural, electronic and elastic properties of the M3AlC2 phases (M = transition metal): A first-principle study. Comput Mater Sci 2010, 49: 691-698.
XH Wang, YC Zhou. Layered machinable and electrically conductive Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 ceramics: A review. J Mater Sci Technol 2010, 26: 385-416.
XH Wang, YC Zhou. Microstructure and properties of Ti3AlC2 prepared by the solid-liquid reaction synthesis and simultaneous in situ hot pressing process. Acta Mater 2002, 50: 3143-3151.
YC Zhou, JX Chen, JY Wang. Strengthening of Ti3AlC2 by incorporation of Si to form Ti3Al1−xSixC2 solid solutions. Acta Mater 2006, 54: 1317-1322.
SB Li, GP Bei, CW Li, et al. Synthesis and deformation microstructure of Ti3SiAl0.2C1.8 solid solution. Mat Sci Eng A 2006, 441: 202-205.
RJ Pan, JF Zhu, YM Liu. Synthesis, microstructure and properties of (Ti1−x, Mox)2AlC phases. Mater Sci Technol 2018, 34: 1064-1069.
JF Zhu, H Jiang, F Wang, et al. Synthesis, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties of (Cr1-xVx)2AlC ceramics by in situ hot-pressing method. J Mater Res 2014, 29: 1168-1174.
HL Gao, R Benitez, W Son, et al. Structural, physical and mechanical properties of Ti3(Al1-xSix)C2 solid solution with x = 0-1. Mat Sci Eng A 2016, 676: 197-208.
Y Fang, XH Liu, JF Zhu, et al. Effect of Ga on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3(Al1−x,Gax)C2. Mat Sci Eng A 2020, 771: 138651.
JF Zhu, RJ Pan. Synthesis and mechanical properties of (Ti,Mo)2AlC/Al2O3 composite by a reaction hot pressing method. Ceram Int 2013, 39: 5609-5613.
W Yu, V Mauchamp, T Cabioc’h, et al. Solid solution effects in the Ti2Al(CxNy) MAX phases: Synthesis, microstructure, electronic structure and transport properties. Acta Mater 2014, 80: 421-434.
J Yang, LM Pan, W Gu, et al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of in situ synthesized (TiB2+TiC)/ Ti3SiC2 composites. Ceram Int 2012, 38: 649-655.
AJ Li, YC Zhou. A novel method to make tough Ti2AlC/Al2O3- and Ti3AlC2/Al2O3-laminated composites. J Am Ceram Soc 2010, 93: 4110-4114.
JX Chen, YC Zhou. Strengthening of Ti3AlC2 by incorporation of Al2O3. Scripta Mater 2004, 50: 897-901.
JF Zhu, L Ye, LH He. Effect of Al2O3 on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3AlC2/Al2O3 in situ composites synthesized by reactive hot pressing. Ceram Int 2012, 38: 5475-5479.
S Wang, J Cheng, SY Zhu, et al. Microstructure evolution, mechanical and tribological properties of Ti3(Al,Sn)C2/ Al2O3 composites. J Eur Ceram Soc 2018, 38: 2502-2510.
CH Yang, F Wang, JF Zhu, et al. Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti,W)3AlC2/Al2O3 composites by in situ reactive hot pressing. Mat Sci Eng A 2014, 610: 154-160.
JF Zhu, H Jiang, F Wang, et al. Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr2AlC/Al2O3 in situ composites by reactive hot pressing. J Eur Ceram Soc 2014, 34: 4137-4144.
L Wu, JX Chen, MY Liu. Reciprocating friction and wear behavior of Ti3AlC2 and Ti3AlC2/Al2O3 composites against AIS152100 bearing steel. Wear 2009, 266: 158-166.
MZ Mehrizi, R Beygi. Direct synthesis of Ti3AlC2-Al2O3 nanocomposite by mechanical alloying. J Alloys Compd 2018, 740: 118-123.
CL Yeh, CW Kuo, YC Chu. Formation of Ti3AlC2/Al2O3 and Ti2AlC/Al2O3 composites by combustion synthesis in Ti-Al-C-TiO2 systems. J Alloys Compd 2010, 494: 132-136.
WM Haynes. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 95th edn. Boca Raton (USA): CRC Press, 2014.
HH Yu, YC Xin, MY Wang, et al. Hall-Petch relationship in Mg alloys: A review. J Mater Sci Technol 2018, 34: 248-256.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 782-790
Cite this article:
FANG Y, LIU X, FENG Y, et al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti3(Al,Ga)C2/Al2O3 composites prepared by in situ reactive hot pressing. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2020, 9(6): 782-790.








Web of Science






Received: 22 July 2020
Revised: 15 September 2020
Accepted: 26 September 2020
Published: 13 November 2020
© The Author(s) 2020

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit