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High performance hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics with excellent densification and mechanical properties were successfully fabricated by digital light processing (DLP) three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. It was found that the sintering atmosphere of wet CO2 can dramatically improve the densification process and thus lead to better mechanical properties. HA ceramics with a relative density of 97.12% and a three-point bending strength of 92.4 MPa can be achieved at a sintering temperature of 1300 ℃, which makes a solid foundation for application in bone engineering. Furthermore, a relatively high compressive strength of 4.09 MPa can be also achieved for a DLP-printed p-cell triply periodic minimum surface (TPMS) structure with a porosity of 74%, which meets the requirement of cancellous bone substitutes. A further cell proliferation test demonstrated that the sintering atmosphere of wet CO2 led to improve cell vitality after 7 days of cell culture Moreover, with the possible benefit from the bio-inspired structure, the 3D-printed TPMS structure significantly improved the cell vitality, which is crucial for early osteogenesis and osteointegration.


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High performance hydroxyapatite ceramics and a triply periodic minimum surface structure fabricated by digital light processing 3D printing

Show Author's information Yongxia YAOaWei QINb,cBohang XINGaNa SHAd( )Ting JIAOb,c( )Zhe ZHAOa( )
School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418, China
Department of Prosthodontics, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, College of Stomatology, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200011, China
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Stomatology & Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, Shanghai 200011, China
School of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418, China

† Yongxia Yao and Wei Qin contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

High performance hydroxyapatite (HA) ceramics with excellent densification and mechanical properties were successfully fabricated by digital light processing (DLP) three-dimensional (3D) printing technology. It was found that the sintering atmosphere of wet CO2 can dramatically improve the densification process and thus lead to better mechanical properties. HA ceramics with a relative density of 97.12% and a three-point bending strength of 92.4 MPa can be achieved at a sintering temperature of 1300 ℃, which makes a solid foundation for application in bone engineering. Furthermore, a relatively high compressive strength of 4.09 MPa can be also achieved for a DLP-printed p-cell triply periodic minimum surface (TPMS) structure with a porosity of 74%, which meets the requirement of cancellous bone substitutes. A further cell proliferation test demonstrated that the sintering atmosphere of wet CO2 led to improve cell vitality after 7 days of cell culture Moreover, with the possible benefit from the bio-inspired structure, the 3D-printed TPMS structure significantly improved the cell vitality, which is crucial for early osteogenesis and osteointegration.

Keywords:

hydroxyapatite (HA), 3D printing, sintering atmosphere, mechanical property, bioactivity, digital light processing (DLP)
Received: 03 June 2020 Revised: 23 August 2020 Accepted: 25 August 2020 Published: 18 January 2021 Issue date: February 2021
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Publication history

Received: 03 June 2020
Revised: 23 August 2020
Accepted: 25 August 2020
Published: 18 January 2021
Issue date: February 2021

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2020

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFB1103500 and 2017YFB1103502).

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