AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
PDF (3.4 MB)
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Synthesis and electrochemical properties of V2C MXene by etching in opened/closed environments

Meng WUYan HELibo WANGQixun XIA( )Aiguo ZHOU( )
Henan Key Laboratory of Materials on Deep-Earth Engineering, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, China
Show Author Information


The effect of etching environment (opened or closed) on the synthesis and electrochemical properties of V2C MXene was studied. V2C MXene samples were synthesized by selectively etching of V2AlC at 90 ℃ in two different environments: opened environment (OE) in oil bath pans under atmosphere pressure and closed environment (CE) in hydrothermal reaction kettles under higher pressures. In OE, only NaF (sodium fluoride) + HCl (hydrochloric acid) etching solution can be used to synthesize highly pure V2C MXene. However, in CE, both LiF (lithium fluoride) + HCl and NaF+HCl etchant can be used to prepare V2C MXene. Moreover, the V2C MXene samples made in CE had higher purity and better-layered structure than those made in OE. Although the purity of V2C obtained by LiF+HCl is lower than that of V2C obtained using NaF+HCl, it shows better electrochemical performance as anodes of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Therefore, etching in CE is a better method for preparing highly pure V2C MXene, which provides a reference for expanding the synthesis methods of V2C with better electrochemical properties.


M Naguib, M Kurtoglu, V Presser, et al. Two-dimensional nanocrystals produced by exfoliation of Ti3AlC2. Adv Mater 2011, 23: 4248-4253.
M Naguib, O Mashtalir, J Carle, et al. Two-dimensional transition metal carbides. ACS Nano 2012, 6: 1322-1331.
C Ling, WB Tian, P Zhang, et al. Synthesis and formation mechanism of titanium lead carbide. J Adv Ceram 2018, 7: 178-183.
DX Yang, Y Zhou, XH Yan, et al. Highly conductive wear resistant Cu/Ti3SiC2(TiC/SiC) co-continuous composites via vacuum infiltration process. J Adv Ceram 2020, 9: 83-93.
YM Gong, WB Tian, PG Zhang, et al. Slip casting and pressureless sintering of Ti3AlC2. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 367-376.
S Jin, ZT Wang, YQ Du, et al. Hot-pressing sintering of double-A-layer MAX phase Mo2Ga2C. J Inorg Mater 2020, 35: 41-45.
ZY Li, LB Wang, DD Sun, et al. Synthesis and thermal stability of two-dimensional carbide MXene Ti3C2. Mater Sci Eng: B 2015, 191: 33-40.
FF Liu, AG Zhou, JF Chen, et al. Preparation and methane adsorption of two-dimensional carbide Ti2C. Adsorption 2016, 22: 915-922.
MM Hu, T Hu, RF Cheng, et al. MXene-coated silk-derived carbon cloth toward flexible electrode for supercapacitor application. J Energy Chem 2018, 27: 161-166.
QX Xia, NM Shinde, TF Zhang, et al. Seawater electrolyte- mediated high volumetric MXene-based electrochemical symmetric supercapacitors. Dalton Trans 2018, 47: 8676-8682.
YP Gao, LB Wang, ZY Li, et al. Electrochemical performance of Ti3C2 supercapacitors in KOH electrolyte. J Adv Ceram 2015, 4: 130-134.
QX Xia, NM Shinde, JM Yun, et al. Bismuth oxychloride/ MXene symmetric supercapacitor with high volumetric energy density. Electrochimica Acta 2018, 271: 351-360.
CJ Shen, LB Wang, AG Zhou, et al. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of two-dimensional RGO/Ti3C2Tx nanocomposites. Nanomaterials 2018, 8: 80-91.
CJ Shen, LB Wang, AG Zhou, et al. MoS2-decorated Ti3C2 MXene nanosheet as anode material in lithium-ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 2017, 164: A2654-A2659.
ZX Wang, Z Xu, HC Huang, et al. Unraveling and regulating self-discharge behavior of Ti3C2Tx MXene-based supercapacitors. ACS Nano 2020, 14: 4916-4924.
YT Xie, HT Zhang, HC Huang, et al. High-voltage asymmetric MXene-based on-chip micro-supercapacitors. Nano Energy 2020, 74: 104928-104937.
HC Huang, JQ He, ZX Wang, et al. Scalable, and low-cost treating-cutting-coating manufacture platform for MXene- based on-chip micro-supercapacitors. Nano Energy 2020, 69: 104431-104437.
DD Sun, QK Hu, JF Chen, et al. Structural transformation of MXene (V2C, Cr2C, and Ta2C) with O groups during lithiation: A first-principles investigation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016, 8: 74-81.
M Naguib, J Halim, J Lu, et al. New two-dimensional niobium and vanadium carbides as promising materials for Li-ion batteries. J Am Chem Soc 2013, 135: 15966-15969.
B Xiao, YC Li, XF Yu, et al. Penta-graphene: A promising anode material as the Li/Na-ion battery with both extremely high theoretical capacity and fast charge/discharge rate. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016, 8: 35342-35352.
ZP Yang, TT Qin, YT Niu, et al. Flexible visible-light- driven photoelectrochemical biosensor based on molecularly imprinted nanoparticle intercalation-modulated graphene fiber for ultrasensitive urea detection. Carbon 2020, 157: 457-465.
XL Zhang, J Zhang, B Leng, et al. Photodetectors: Enhanced performances of PVK/ZnO nanorods/graphene heterostructure UV photodetector via piezo-phototronic interface engineering. Adv Mater Interfaces 2019, 6: 1970145-1970153.
LB Wang, DR Liu, WW Lian, et al. The preparation of V2CTx by facile hydrothermal-assisted etching processing and its performance in lithium-ion battery. J Mater Res Technol 2020, 9: 984-993.
Y Dall’Agnese, PL Taberna, Y Gogotsi, et al. Two- dimensional vanadium carbide (MXene) as positive electrode for sodium-ion capacitors. J Phys Chem Lett 2015, 6: 2305-2309.
J Zhou, SH Gao, ZL Guo, et al. Ti-enhanced exfoliation of V2AlC into V2C MXene for lithium-ion battery anodes. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 11450-11454.
FF Liu, J Zhou, SW Wang, et al. Preparation of high-purity V2C MXene and electrochemical properties as Li-ion batteries. J Electrochem Soc 2017, 164: A709-A713.
HT He, QX Xia, BX Wang, et al. Two-dimensional vanadium carbide (V2CTx) MXene as supercapacitor electrode in seawater electrolyte. Chin Chem Lett 2020, 31: 984-987.
M Wu, BX Wang, QK Hu, et al. The synthesis process and thermal stability of V2C MXene. Materials 2018, 11: 2112-2122.
JX Nan, X Guo, J Xiao, et al. Nanoengineering of 2D MXene-based materials for energy storage applications. Small 2019: 1902085.
LB Wang, H Zhang, B Wang, et al. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of Ti3C2Tx with hydrothermal process. Electron Mater Lett 2016, 12: 702-710.
M Naguib, O Mashtalir, MR Lukatskaya, et al. One-step synthesis of nanocrystalline transition metal oxides on thin sheets of disordered graphitic carbon by oxidation of MXenes. Chem Commun 2014, 50: 7420-7423.
J Chen, K Chen, DY Tong, et al. CO2 and temperature dual responsive “Smart” MXene phases. Chem Commun 2015, 51: 314-317.
ES Muckley, M Naguib, HW Wang, et al. Multimodality of structural, electrical, and gravimetric responses of intercalated MXenes to water. ACS Nano 2017, 11: 11118-11126.
XQ Xie, MQ Zhao, B Anasori, et al. Porous heterostructured MXene/carbon nanotube composite paper with high volumetric capacity for sodium-based energy storage devices. Nano Energy 2016, 26: 513-523.
M Li, J Ding, JM Xue. Mesoporous carbon decorated graphene as an efficient electrode material for supercapacitors. J Mater Chem A 2013, 1: 7469-7476.
H Zhu, J Yin, XL Wang, et al. Microorganism-derived heteroatom-doped carbon materials for oxygen reduction and supercapacitors. Adv Funct Mater 2013, 23: 1305-1312.
Y Xie, M Naguib, VN Mochalin, et al. Role of surface structure on Li-ion energy storage capacity of two-dimensional transition-metal carbides. J Am Chem Soc 2014, 136: 6385-6394.
JP Hu, B Xu, C Ouyang, et al. Investigations on V2C and V2CX2 (X = F, OH) monolayer as a promising anode material for Li ion batteries from first-principles calculations. J Phys Chem C 2014, 118: 24274-24281.
Q Tang, Z Zhou, PW Shen. Are MXenes promising anode materials for Li ion batteries? Computational studies on electronic properties and Li storage capability of Ti3C2 and Ti3C2X2 (X = F, OH) monolayer. J Am Chem Soc 2012, 134: 16909-16916.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 749-758
Cite this article:
WU M, HE Y, WANG L, et al. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of V2C MXene by etching in opened/closed environments. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2020, 9(6): 749-758.








Web of Science






Received: 09 May 2020
Revised: 12 August 2020
Accepted: 13 August 2020
Published: 15 November 2020
© The Author(s) 2020

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit