Journal Home > Volume 9 , issue 6

The dense ZnO-Bi2O3-MnO2-xSiO2 (ZBMS) varistors for x = 0, 1, 2, 3 wt% were fabricated by flash sintering method under the low temperature of 850 ℃ within 2 min. The sample temperature was estimated by a black body radiation model in the flash sintering process. The crystalline phase assemblage, density, microstructure, and electrical characteristics of the flash-sintered ZBMS varistors with different SiO2-doped content were investigated. According to the XRD analysis, many secondary phases were detected due to the SiO2 doping. Meanwhile, the average grain size decrease with increasing SiO2-doped content. The improved nonlinear characteristics were obtained in SiO2-doped samples, which can be attributed to the ion migration and oxygen absorption induced by the doped SiO2. The flash-sintered ZBMS varistor ceramics for x = 2 wt% exhibited excellent comprehensive electrical properties, with the nonlinear coefficient of 24.5, the threshold voltage and leakage current of 385 V·mm-1 and 11.8 µA, respectively.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Fabrication and electrical characteristics of flash-sintered SiO2-doped ZnO-Bi2O3-MnO2 varistors

Show Author's information Pai PENGa,bYujun DENGa,bJingpeng NIUa,bLiyi SHIcYunzhu MEIa,bSanming DUdJuan LIUa,b( )Dong XUa,b( )
Key Laboratory of Green Fabrication and Surface Technology of Advanced Metal Materials (Anhui University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Ma'anshan 243002, China
Key Laboratory of Etallurgical Emission Reduction & Resources Recycling (Anhui University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Ma'anshan 243002, China
Research Center of Nano Science and Technology, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China
National United Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Bearing Tribology, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, China

Abstract

The dense ZnO-Bi2O3-MnO2-xSiO2 (ZBMS) varistors for x = 0, 1, 2, 3 wt% were fabricated by flash sintering method under the low temperature of 850 ℃ within 2 min. The sample temperature was estimated by a black body radiation model in the flash sintering process. The crystalline phase assemblage, density, microstructure, and electrical characteristics of the flash-sintered ZBMS varistors with different SiO2-doped content were investigated. According to the XRD analysis, many secondary phases were detected due to the SiO2 doping. Meanwhile, the average grain size decrease with increasing SiO2-doped content. The improved nonlinear characteristics were obtained in SiO2-doped samples, which can be attributed to the ion migration and oxygen absorption induced by the doped SiO2. The flash-sintered ZBMS varistor ceramics for x = 2 wt% exhibited excellent comprehensive electrical properties, with the nonlinear coefficient of 24.5, the threshold voltage and leakage current of 385 V·mm-1 and 11.8 µA, respectively.

Keywords:

flash sintering, SiO2 additive, ZBMS varistors, electrical properties
Received: 22 April 2020 Revised: 02 July 2020 Accepted: 04 July 2020 Published: 29 July 2020 Issue date: December 2020
References(46)
[1]
J Wong. Sintering and varistor characteristics of ZnO-Bi2O3 ceramics. J Appl Phys 1980, 51: 4453-4459.
[2]
D Szwagierczak, J Kulawik, A Skwarek. Influence of processing on microstructure and electrical characteristics of multilayer varistors. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 408-417.
[3]
D Xu, LY Shi, ZH Wu, et al. Microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO-Bi2O3-based varistor ceramics by different sintering processes. J Eur Ceram Soc 2009, 29: 1789-1794.
[4]
FH Liu, GJ Xu, L Duan, et al. Influence of B2O3 additives on microstructure and electrical properties of ZnO-Bi2O3- Sb2O3-based varistors. J Alloys Compd 2011, 509: L56-L58.
[5]
J Ott, A Lorenz, M Harrer, et al. The influence of Bi2O3 and Sb2O3 on the electrical properties of ZnO-based varistors. J Electroceramics 2001, 6: 135-146.
[6]
ED Kim, CH Kim, MH Oh. Role and effect of Co2O3 additive on the upturn characteristics of ZnO varistors. J Appl Phys 1985, 58: 3231-3235.
[7]
S Ezhilvalavan, TRN Kutty. Dependence of non-linearity coefficients on transition metal oxide concentration in simplified compositions of ZnO+Bi2O3+MO varistor ceramics (M = Co or Mn). J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 1996, 7: 137-148.
[8]
D Xu, XN Cheng, GP Zhao, et al. Microstructure and electrical properties of Sc2O3-doped ZnO-Bi2O3-based varistor ceramics. Ceram Int 2011, 37: 701-706.
[9]
F Jiang, ZJ Peng, YX Zang, et al. Progress on rare-earth doped ZnO-based varistor materials. J Adv Ceram 2013, 2: 201-212.
[10]
H Kanai, M Imai. Effects of SiO2 and Cr2O3 on the formation process of ZnO varistors. J Mater Sci 1988, 23: 4379-4382.
[11]
YH Kim, H Kawamura, M Nawata. The effect of Cr2O3 additive on the electrical properties of ZnO varistor. J Mater Sci 1997, 32: 1665-1670.
[12]
S Bernik, N Daneu, A Rečnik. Inversion boundary induced grain growth in TiO2 or Sb2O3 doped ZnO-based varistor ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2004, 24: 3703-3708.
[13]
AMH Khafagy, SM El-Rabaie, MT Dawoud, et al. Microhardness, microstructure and electrical properties of ZVM ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2014, 3: 287-296.
[14]
D Szwagierczak, J Kulawik, A Skwarek. Influence of processing on microstructure and electrical characteristics of multilayer varistors. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 408-417.
[15]
Cologna M, Rashkova B, Raj R. Flash sintering of nanograin zirconia in <5 s at 850 ℃. J Am Ceram Soc 2010, 93: 3556-3559.
[16]
SK Jha, K Terauds, JM Lebrun, et al. Beyond flash sintering in 3 mol% yttria stabilized zirconia. J Ceram Soc Jpn 2016, 124: 283-288.
[17]
W Qin, J Yun, AM Thron, et al. Temperature gradient and microstructure evolution in AC flash sintering of 3 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia. Mater Manuf Process 2017, 32: 549-556.
[18]
J Zhang, ZH Wang, TZ Jiang, et al. Densification of 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia at low temperature by flash sintering technique for solid oxide fuel cells. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 14037-14043.
[19]
LL Guan, J Li, XW Song, et al. Graphite assisted flash sintering of Sm2O3 doped CeO2 ceramics at the onset temperature of 25 ℃. Scripta Mater 2019, 159: 72-75.
[20]
SK Jha, H Charalambous, H Wang, et al. In-situ observation of oxygen mobility and abnormal lattice expansion in ceria during flash sintering. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 15362-15369.
[21]
H Charalambous, SK Jha, H Wang, et al. Inhomogeneous reduction and its relation to grain growth of titania during flash sintering. Scripta Mater 2018, 155: 37-40.
[22]
H Charalambous, SK Jha, H Wang, et al. Inhomogeneous reduction and its relation to grain growth of titania during flash sintering. Scripta Mater 2018, 155: 37-40.
[23]
RK Shi, YP Pu, W Wang, et al. Flash sintering of Barium titanate. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 7085-7089.
[24]
BS Ma, Y Zhu, KW Wang, et al. Microstructure and dielectric property of flash sintered SiO2-coated BaTiO3 ceramics. Scripta Mater 2019, 170: 1-5.
[25]
H Charalambous, SK Jha, RT Lay, et al. Investigation of temperature approximation methods during flash sintering of ZnO. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 6162-6169.
[26]
Zhang YY, Luo J. Promoting the flash sintering of ZnO in reduced atmospheres to achieve nearly full densities at furnace temperatures of <120 ℃. Scripta Mater 2015, 106: 26-29.
[27]
F Lemke, W Rheinheimer, MJ Hoffmann. A comparison of power controlled flash sintering and conventional sintering of strontium titanate. Scripta Mater 2017, 130: 187-190.
[28]
A Karakuscu, M Cologna, D Yarotski, et al. Defect structure of flash-sintered strontium titanate. J Am Ceram Soc 2012, 95: 2531-2536.
[29]
DG Liu, Y Gao, JL Liu, et al. Preparation of Al2O3- Y3Al5O12-ZrO2 eutectic ceramic by flash sintering. Scripta Mater 2016, 114: 108-111.
[30]
H Zhang, YG Wang, JL Liu, et al. Reaction assisted flash sintering of Al2O3-YAG ceramic composites with eutectic composition. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 13551-13555.
[31]
YH Dong, IW Chen. Thermal runaway in mold-assisted flash sintering. J Am Ceram Soc 2016, 99: 2889-2894.
[32]
R Raj. Joule heating during flash-sintering. J Eur Ceram Soc 2012, 32: 2293-2301.
[33]
Zhang YY, Luo J. Promoting the flash sintering of ZnO in reduced atmospheres to achieve nearly full densities at furnace temperatures of <120 ℃. Scripta Mater 2015, 106: 26-29.
[34]
JY Nie, YY Zhang, JM Chan, et al. Water-assisted flash sintering: Flashing ZnO at room temperature to achieve ~98% density in seconds. Scripta Mater 2018, 142: 79-82.
[35]
YZ Mei, S Pandey, WM Long, et al. Processing and characterizations of flash sintered ZnO-Bi2O3-MnO2 varistor ceramics under different electric fields. J Eur Ceram Soc 2020, 40: 1330-1337.
[36]
B Cui, JP Niu, P Peng, et al. Flash sintering preparation and electrical properties of ZnO-Bi2O3-M (M = Cr2O3, MnO2 or Co2O3) varistor ceramics. Ceram Int 2020, 46: 14913-14918.
[37]
D Xu, XN Cheng, XH Yan, et al. Sintering process as relevant parameter for Bi2O3 vaporization from ZnO-Bi2O3- based varistor ceramics. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China 2009, 19: 1526-1532.
[38]
HR Bai, MM Li, ZJ Xu, et al. Influence of SiO2 on electrical properties of the highly nonlinear ZnO-Bi2O3- MnO2 varistors. J Eur Ceram Soc 2017, 37: 3965-3971.
[39]
C Schmerbauch, J Gonzalez-Julian, R Röder, et al. Flash sintering of nanocrystalline zinc oxide and its influence on microstructure and defect formation. J Am Ceram Soc 2014, 97: 1728-1735.
[40]
N Canikoğlu, N Toplan, K Yıldız, et al. Densification and grain growth of SiO2-doped ZnO. Ceram Int 2006, 32: 127-132.
[41]
LM Levinson, HR Philipp. Zinc oxide varistors—a review. Am Ceram Soc Bull 1986, 65: 639-646..
[42]
D Xu, XN Yue, YD Zhang, et al. Enhanced dielectric properties and electrical responses of cobalt-doped CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films. J Alloys Compd 2019, 773: 853-859.
[43]
D Xu, XN Yue, J Song, et al. Improved dielectric and non-ohmic properties of (Zn + Zr) codoped CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 11421-11427.
[44]
XN Yue, WM Long, J Liu, et al. Enhancement of dielectric and non-ohmic properties of graded Co doped CaCu3Ti4O12 thin films. J Alloys Compd 2020, 816: 152582.
[45]
SR Dhage, V Ravi, OB Yang. Low voltage varistor ceramics based on SnO2. Bull Mater Sci 2007, 30: 583-586.
[46]
CW Nahm, BC Shin, BH Min. Microstructure and electrical properties of Y2O3-doped ZnO-Pr6O11-based varistor ceramics. Mater Chem Phys 2003, 82: 157-164.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 22 April 2020
Revised: 02 July 2020
Accepted: 04 July 2020
Published: 29 July 2020
Issue date: December 2020

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2020

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51802003 and 51572113), State Key Laboratory of New Ceramic and Fine Processing Tsinghua University (No. KF201808), and the Project National United Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Bearing Tribology (No. 201912).

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return