Journal Home > Volume 9 , issue 3

In this paper, both the 1D radial mode and the equivalent circuit of a piezoceramic disk resonator were theoretically analyzed based on IEEE standards. And then, the radial resonance frequency spectra of the PZT-based (Nb/Ce co-doped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, abbreviated as PZT-NC) piezoceramic circular disks were measured by an impedance analyzer. A set of resonance frequency spectra including six electrical parameters: Z, R, X, Y, G, and B, were used for making a value distinction between three possible resonance frequencies, and between three possible antiresonance frequencies. A new-form Nyquist diagram was depicted to describe the position relations of these characteristic frequencies. Such a complete resonance frequency spectrum was used to perform the accurate calculation of some material constants and electromechanical coupling parameters for the PZT-NC piezoceramics. Further, the frequency dependence of the AC conductive behavior of the specimen was characterized by the complex impedance measurement. The values of AC conductivity at resonance/antiresonance were deduced from the equivalent circuit parameters. Moreover, the Van Dyke circuit model was assigned to each element contribution and the simulated curves showed a nice fitting with the experimental results. Finally, an additional impedance analysis associated with resonance frequency calculation revealed a complicated coupled vibration mode existing in the annular disk specimen.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

A systematic analysis of the radial resonance frequency spectra of the PZT-based (Zr/Ti = 52/48) piezoceramic thin disks

Show Author's information Yu CHENa,bShaozhao WANGaHuajiang ZHOUaQian XUcQingyuan WANGa,c( )Jianguo ZHUb( )
School of Mechanical Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu 610106, China
College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China

Abstract

In this paper, both the 1D radial mode and the equivalent circuit of a piezoceramic disk resonator were theoretically analyzed based on IEEE standards. And then, the radial resonance frequency spectra of the PZT-based (Nb/Ce co-doped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3, abbreviated as PZT-NC) piezoceramic circular disks were measured by an impedance analyzer. A set of resonance frequency spectra including six electrical parameters: Z, R, X, Y, G, and B, were used for making a value distinction between three possible resonance frequencies, and between three possible antiresonance frequencies. A new-form Nyquist diagram was depicted to describe the position relations of these characteristic frequencies. Such a complete resonance frequency spectrum was used to perform the accurate calculation of some material constants and electromechanical coupling parameters for the PZT-NC piezoceramics. Further, the frequency dependence of the AC conductive behavior of the specimen was characterized by the complex impedance measurement. The values of AC conductivity at resonance/antiresonance were deduced from the equivalent circuit parameters. Moreover, the Van Dyke circuit model was assigned to each element contribution and the simulated curves showed a nice fitting with the experimental results. Finally, an additional impedance analysis associated with resonance frequency calculation revealed a complicated coupled vibration mode existing in the annular disk specimen.

Keywords:

piezoceramic resonator, radial mode, AC conductivity, resonance frequency spectra
Received: 19 January 2020 Revised: 18 March 2020 Accepted: 24 March 2020 Published: 05 June 2020 Issue date: June 2020
References(46)
[1]
GH Haertling. Ferroelectric ceramics: History and technology. J Am Ceram Soc 1999, 82: 797-818.
[2]
ST Zhang, AB Kounga, E Aulbach, et al. Giant strain in lead-free piezoceramics Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3-K0.5Na0.5NbO3 system. Appl Phys Lett 2007, 91: 112906.
[3]
R Hayati, MA Bahrevar, Y Ganjkhanlou, et al. Electromechanical properties of Ce-doped (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 lead-free piezoceramics. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 186-195.
[4]
H Moriwake, A Konishi, T Ogawa, et al. Polarization fluctuations in the perovskite-structured ferroelectric AgNbO3. Phys Rev B 2018, 97: 224104.
[5]
TR Shrout, SJ Zhang. Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics: Alternatives for PZT? J Electroceram 2007, 19: 113-126.
[6]
PK Panda, B Sahoo. PZT to lead free piezo ceramics: A review. Ferroelectrics 2015, 474: 128-143.
[7]
M Haq. Application of piezo transducers in biomedical science for health monitoring and energy harvesting problems. Mater Res Express 2018, 6: 022002.
[8]
JP Ma, L Chen, Z Wu, et al. Pyroelectric Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 polarized ceramic with strong pyro-driven catalysis for dye wastewater decomposition. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 11934-11938.
[9]
AM Manjón-Sanz, MR Dolgos. Applications of piezoelectrics: Old and new. Chem Mater 2018, 30: 8718-8726.
[10]
S Sherrit, TJ Masys, HD Wiederick, et al. Determination of the reduced matrix of the piezoelectric, dielectric, and elastic material constants for a piezoelectric material with C∞ symmetry. IEEE T Ultrason Ferr 2011, 58: 1714-1720.
[11]
S Sherrit, N Gauthier, HD Wiederick, et al. Accurate evaluation of the real and imaginary material constants for a piezoelectric resonator in the radial mode. Ferroelectrics 1991, 119: 17-32.
[12]
C Alemany, L Pardo, B Jimenez, et al. Automatic iterative evaluation of complex material constants in piezoelectric ceramics. J Phys D: Appl Phys 1994, 27: 148-155.
[13]
L Pardo, M Algueró, K Brebøl. A non-Standard shear resonator for the matrix characterization of piezoceramics and its validation study by finite element analysis. J Phys D: Appl Phys 2007, 40: 2162-2169.
[14]
L Pardo, F Montero de Espinosa, A García, et al. Choosing the best geometries for the linear characterization of lossy piezoceramics: Study of the thickness-poled shear plate. Appl Phys Lett 2008, 92: 172907.
[15]
SJ Rupitsch, R Lerch. Inverse method to estimate material parameters for piezoceramic disc actuators. Appl Phys A 2009, 97: 735-740.
[16]
N Pérez, MAB Andrade, F Buiochi, et al. Identification of elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric constants in piezoceramic disks. IEEE T Ultrason Ferr 2010, 57: 2772-2783.
[17]
N Pérez, F Buiochi, M Brizzotti Andrade, et al. Numerical characterization of piezoceramics using resonance curves. Materials 2016, 9: 71.
[18]
Y Chen, YM Wen, P Li. Characterization of PZT ceramic transducer embedded in concrete. Sensor Actuat A: Phys 2006, 128: 116-124.
[19]
YW Yang, H Liu, VGM Annamdas, et al. Monitoring damage propagation using PZT impedance transducers. Smart Mater Struct 2009, 18: 045003.
[20]
Y Chen, SX Xie, QY Wang, et al. Correlation between microstructural evolutions and electrical/mechanical behaviors in Nb/Ce co-doped Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 ceramics at different sintering temperatures. Mater Res Bull 2017, 94: 174-182.
[21]
Y Chen, JG Xu, Q Xu, et al. Ferroelastic domain switching and R-curve behavior in lead zirconate titanate (Zr/Ti = 52/48)-based ferroelectric ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2020, 103: 1067-1078.
[22]
DY Zhou, M Kamlah, D Munz. Uniaxial compressive stress dependence of the high-field dielectric and piezoelectric performance of soft PZT piezoceramics. J Mater Res 2004, 19: 834-842.
[23]
Z Butt, RA Pasha. Effect of temperature and loading on output voltage of lead zirconate titanate (PZT-5A) piezoelectric energy harvester. IOP Conf 2016, 146: 012016.
[24]
J Erhart, P Půlpán, M Pustka. Piezoelectric Ceramic Resonators. Springer International Publishing, 2017.
[25]
M Onoe, J Gillis. Tables of modified quotients of Bessel functions of the first kind for real and imaginary arguments. Phys Today 1959, 12: 50-51.
[26]
KS Van Dyke. The piezo-electric resonator and its equivalent network. Proc IRE 1928, 16: 742-764.
[27]
K Terunuma, S Nishigaki. A method for measuring the equivalent circuit elements for a piezo-resonator. Jpn J Appl Phys 1983, 22: 143.
[28]
RW Sutliff. The effects of loading on equivalent electric circuit models for piezoelectric transducers. Miami University, 2018.
[29]
AW Warner, D Berlincourt, AH Meitzler, et al. IEEE standard on piezoelectricity (ANSI/IEEE standard 176-1987). Technical Report. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc, 1988.
[30]
YK Zhang, TF Lu, YX Peng. Three-port equivalent circuit of multi-layer piezoelectric stack. Sensor Actuat A: Phys 2015, 236: 92-97.
[31]
VL Karlash. Energy losses in piezoceramic resonators and its influence on vibrations’ characteristics. Electron Commun 2014, 19: 82-93.
[32]
A Albareda, R Pérez, JE García, et al. Nonlinear elastic phenomena near the radial antiresonance frequency in piezoceramic discs. J Electroceram 2007, 19: 427-431.
[33]
VL Karlash. Modeling of the energy-loss piezoceramic resonators by electric equivalent networks with passive elements. Mathematical Modeling and Computing 2014, 1: 163-177.
[34]
R Yimnirun, S Ananta, S Chamunglap. Dielectric properties of (1-x)Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-(x)BaTiO3 ceramics under uniaxial compressive pre-stress. Mater Chem Phys 2007, 102: 165-170.
[35]
D Damjanovic, Jr Rossetti. GA. Strain generation and energy-conversion mechanisms in lead-based and lead-free piezoceramics. MRS Bull 2018, 43: 588-594.
[36]
UFFC. 177-1966-Standard definitions and methods of measurements for piezoelectric vibrators. 1966.
[37]
PM Weaver, T Stevenson, T Quast, et al. High temperature measurement and characterisation of piezoelectric properties. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 2015, 26: 9268-9278.
[38]
A González, Á García, C Benavente-Peces, et al. Revisiting the characterization of the losses in piezoelectric materials from impedance spectroscopy at resonance. Materials 2016, 9: 72.
[39]
FD Morrison, DC Sinclair, AR West. Characterization of lanthanum-doped Barium titanate ceramics using impedance spectroscopy. J Am Ceram Soc 2001, 84: 531-538.
[40]
P Nayak, T Badapanda, AK Singh, et al. Possible relaxation and conduction mechanism in W6+ doped SrBi4Ti4O15 ceramic. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 4527-4535.
[41]
M Atif, M Nadeem. Interplay between the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases on the magnetic and impedance analysis of (x)Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-(1-x)CoFe2O4 composites. J Alloys Compd 2015, 623: 447-453.
[42]
K Funke. Jump relaxation in solid electrolytes. Prog Solid State Chem 1993, 22: 111-195.
[43]
AV Mezheritsky. Elastic, dielectric, and piezoelectric losses in piezoceramics: How it works all together. IEEE T Ultrason Ferr 2004, 51: 695-707.
[44]
M Brissaud. Three-dimensional modeling of piezoelectric materials. IEEE T Ultrason Ferr 2010, 57: 2051-2065.
[45]
M Brissaud. Characterization of rectangular and cylindrical piezoceramics using three dimensional modelling. Ferroelectrics 2016, 500: 259-275.
[46]
CH Huang, CC Ma, YC Lin. Theoretical, numerical, and experimental investigation on resonant vibrations of piezoceramic annular disks. IEEE T Ultrason Ferr 2005, 52: 1204-1216.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 19 January 2020
Revised: 18 March 2020
Accepted: 24 March 2020
Published: 05 June 2020
Issue date: June 2020

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2020

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation Funded Project (2017M623025), Special Funding for Post-Doctoral Research Projects from Sichuan Province (2017, presided over by Yu Chen), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11702037), and Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KLIFMD201703).

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return