Journal Home > Volume 9 , issue 3

Hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffolds were fabricated by using digital light processing (DLP) based additive manufacturing. Key issues on the HA bioceramic scaffolds, including dispersion, DLP fabrication, sintering, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility were discussed in detail. Firstly, the effects of dispersant dosage, solid loading, and sintering temperature were studied. The optimal dispersant dosage, solid loading, and sintering temperature were 2 wt%, 50 vol%, and 1250 ℃, respectively. Then, the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the HA bioceramic scaffolds were investigated. The DLP-prepared porous HA bioceramic scaffold was found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties and degradation behavior. From this study, DLP technique shows good potential for manufacturing HA bioceramic scaffolds.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Additive manufacturing of hydroxyapatite bioceramic scaffolds: Dispersion, digital light processing, sintering, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility

Show Author's information Chengwei FENGaKeqiang ZHANGaRujie HEa( )Guojiao DINGaMin XIAbXinxin JINcChen XIEd( )
Institute of Advanced Structure Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150040, China
Shanghai Aircraft Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Shanghai 201324, China

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffolds were fabricated by using digital light processing (DLP) based additive manufacturing. Key issues on the HA bioceramic scaffolds, including dispersion, DLP fabrication, sintering, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility were discussed in detail. Firstly, the effects of dispersant dosage, solid loading, and sintering temperature were studied. The optimal dispersant dosage, solid loading, and sintering temperature were 2 wt%, 50 vol%, and 1250 ℃, respectively. Then, the mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the HA bioceramic scaffolds were investigated. The DLP-prepared porous HA bioceramic scaffold was found to exhibit excellent mechanical properties and degradation behavior. From this study, DLP technique shows good potential for manufacturing HA bioceramic scaffolds.

Keywords:

additive manufacturing, digital light processing, vat photopolymerization, hydroxyapatite, bioceramic scaffold
Received: 21 October 2019 Revised: 03 February 2020 Accepted: 18 March 2020 Published: 05 June 2020 Issue date: June 2020
References(44)
[1]
SY Fu, M Zhu, YF Zhu. Organosilicon polymer-derived ceramics: An overview. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 457-478.
[2]
Z Wu, ZR Zhou, YL Hong. Isotropic freeze casting of through-porous hydroxyapatite ceramics. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 256-264.
[3]
L Witek, Y Shi, J Smay. Controlling calcium and phosphate ion release of 3D printed bioactive ceramic scaffolds: An in vitro study. J Adv Ceram 2017, 6: 157-164.
[4]
TT Shen, WH Yang, XK Shen, et al. Polydopamine- assisted hydroxyapatite and lactoferrin multilayer on titanium for regulating bone balance and enhancing antibacterial property. ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2018, 4: 3211-3223.
[5]
HR Ramay, MQ Zhang. Preparation of porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds by combination of the gel-casting and polymer sponge methods. Biomaterials 2003, 24: 3293-3302.
[6]
EJ Lee, YH Koh, BH Yoon, et al. Highly porous hydroxyapatite bioceramics with interconnected pore channels using camphene-based freeze casting. Mater Lett 2007, 61: 2270-2273.
[7]
TY Yang, JM Lee, SY Yoon, et al. Hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed using a TBA-based freeze-gel casting/polymer sponge technique. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 2010, 21: 1495-1502.
[8]
S Yan, YF Huang, DK Zhao, et al. 3D printing of nano-scale Al2O3-ZrO2 eutectic ceramic: Principle analysis and process optimization of pores. Addit Manuf 2019, 28: 120-126.
[9]
ZW Chen, ZY Li, JJ Li, et al. 3D printing of ceramics: A review. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 661-687.
[10]
ZL Cheng, F Ye, YS Liu, et al. Mechanical and dielectric properties of porous and wave-transparent Si3N4-Si3N4 composite ceramics fabricated by 3D printing combined with chemical vapor infiltration. J Adv Ceram 2019, 8: 399-407.
[11]
XY Du, SY Fu, YF Zhu. 3D printing of ceramic-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: An overview. J Mater Chem B 2018, 6: 4397-4412.
[12]
KH Tan, CK Chua, KF Leong, et al. Scaffold development using selective laser sintering of polyetheretherketone- hydroxyapatite biocomposite blends. Biomaterials 2003, 24: 3115-3123.
[13]
L Hao, S Dadbakhsh, O Seaman, et al. Selective laser melting of a stainless steel and hydroxyapatite composite for load-bearing implant development. J Mater Process Technol 2009, 209: 5793-5801.
[14]
N Xu, XJ Ye, DX Wei, et al. 3D artificial bones for bone repair prepared by computed tomography-guided fused deposition modeling for bone repair. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014, 6: 14952-14963.
[15]
QH Wei, YN Wang, WH Chai, et al. Molecular dynamics simulation and experimental study of the bonding properties of polymer binders in 3D powder printed hydroxyapatite bioceramic bone scaffolds. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 13702-13709.
[16]
E Vorndran, C Moseke, U Gbureck. 3D printing of ceramic implants. MRS Bull 2015, 40: 127-136.
[17]
G Brunello, S Sivolella, R Meneghello, et al. Powder-based 3D printing for bone tissue engineering. Biotechnol Adv 2016, 34: 740-753.
[18]
SY Fu, HR Hu, JJ Chen, et al. Silicone resin derived larnite/C scaffolds via 3D printing for potential tumor therapy and bone regeneration. Chem Eng J 2020, 382: 122928.
[19]
SY Fu, B Yu, HF Ding, et al. Zirconia incorporation in 3D printed β-Ca2SiO4 scaffolds on their physicochemical and biological property. J Inorg Mater 2019, 34: 444.
[20]
XY Du, DX Wei, L Huang, et al. 3D printing of mesoporous bioactive glass/silk fibroin composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng: C 2019, 103: 109731.
[21]
HP Shao, JZ He, T Lin, et al. 3D gel-printing of hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 1163-1170.
[22]
L Sun, ST Parker, D Syoji, et al. Direct-write assembly of 3D silk/hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone Co-cultures. Adv Healthc Mater 2012, 1: 729-735.
[23]
HF Shao, XY Yang, Y He, et al. Bioactive glass-reinforced bioceramic ink writing scaffolds: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical behavior. Biofabrication 2015, 7: 035010.
[24]
JL Simon, S Michna, JA Lewis, et al. In vivo bone response to 3D periodic hydroxyapatite scaffolds assembled by direct ink writing. J Biomed Mater Res 2007, 83A: 747-758.
[25]
A Ronca, L Ambrosio, DW Grijpma. Preparation of designed poly(d,l-lactide)/nanosized hydroxyapatite composite structures by stereolithography. Acta Biomater 2013, 9: 5989-5996.
[26]
SA Skoog, PL Goering, RJ Narayan. Stereolithography in tissue engineering. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 2014, 25: 845-856.
[27]
Z Wang, CZ Huang, J Wang, et al. Development of a novel aqueous hydroxyapatite suspension for stereolithography applied to bone tissue engineering. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 3902-3909.
[28]
M Lasgorceix, E Champion, T Chartier. Shaping by microstereolithography and sintering of macro-micro- porous silicon substituted hydroxyapatite. J Eur Ceram Soc 2016, 36: 1091-1101.
[29]
QH Chen, B Zou, QG Lai, et al. A study on biosafety of HAP ceramic prepared by SLA-3D printing technology directly. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2019, 98: 327-335.
[30]
VI Putlyaev, PV Evdokimov, TV Safronova, et al. Fabrication of osteoconductive Ca3-xM2x(PO4)2 (M = Na, K) calcium phosphate bioceramics by stereolithographic 3D printing. Inorg Mater 2017, 53: 529-535.
[31]
M Wang, C Xie, RJ He, et al. Polymer-derived silicon nitride ceramics by digital light processing based additive manufacturing. J Am Ceram Soc 2019, 102: 5117-5126.
[32]
ZB Liu, HX Liang, TS Shi, et al. Additive manufacturing of hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds via digital light processing and in vitro compatibility. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 11079-11086.
[33]
Y Zeng, YZ Yan, HF Yan, et al. 3D printing of hydroxyapatite scaffolds with good mechanical and biocompatible properties by digital light processing. J Mater Sci 2018, 53: 6291-6301.
[34]
YH Lee, JB Lee, WY Maeng, et al. Photocurable ceramic slurry using solid camphor as novel diluent for conventional digital light processing (DLP) process. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 4358-4365.
[35]
RX He, W Liu, ZW Wu, et al. Fabrication of complex- shaped zirconia ceramic parts via a DLP- stereolithography-based 3D printing method. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 3412-3416.
[36]
D Karalekas, A Aggelopoulos. Study of shrinkage strains in a stereolithography cured acrylic photopolymer resin. J Mater Process Technol 2003, 136: 146-150.
[37]
WL Wang, CM Cheah, JYH Fuh, et al. Influence of process parameters on stereolithography part shrinkage. Mater Des 1996, 17: 205-213.
[38]
HY Xing, B Zou, SS Li, et al. Study on surface quality, precision and mechanical properties of 3D printed ZrO2 ceramic components by laser scanning stereolithography. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 16340-16347.
[39]
M Schwentenwein, J Homa. Additive manufacturing of dense alumina ceramics. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2015, 12: 1-7.
[40]
KQ Zhang, RJ He, GJ Ding, et al. Digital light processing of 3Y-TZP strengthened ZrO2 ceramics. Mater Sci Eng: A 2020, 774: 138768.
[41]
HW Qu, HY Fu, ZY Han, et al. Biomaterials for bone tissue engineering scaffolds: A review. RSC Adv 2019, 9: 26252-26262.
[42]
YW Yang, GY Wang, HX Liang, et al. Additive manufacturing of bone scaffolds. Int J Bioprint 2019, 5: 148-172.
[43]
SJ Lin, RZ LeGeros, R Rohanizadeh, et al. Biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bioceramics: Preparation and properties. Key Eng Mater 2003, 240-242: 473-476.
[44]
HX Zhao, WH Liang. A novel comby scaffold with improved mechanical strength for bone tissue engineering. Mater Lett 2017, 194: 220-223.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 21 October 2019
Revised: 03 February 2020
Accepted: 18 March 2020
Published: 05 June 2020
Issue date: June 2020

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2020

Acknowledgements

This study is mainly financially supported by the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (2182064) hosted by Prof. Rujie He. Prof. Rujie He also thanks the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51772028). Prof. Min Xia thanks the support from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (3052017010). Prof. Xinxin Jin thanks the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51602082). Dr. Keqiang Zhang thanks the support from the Graduate Technology Innovation Project of Beijing Institute of Technology (No. 2019CX10020).

Rights and permissions

This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return