Journal Home > Volume 9 , issue 2

Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.10Ti0.90O3 (BCZT) lead-free ceramics demonstrated excellent dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). So far, to study the effect of morphological changes on dielectric and ferroelectric properties in lead-free BCZT ceramics, researchers have mostly focused on the influence of spherical grain shape change. In this study, BCZT ceramics with rod-like grains and aspect ratio of about 10 were synthesized by surfactant-assisted solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) performed at room temperature confirm the crystallization of pure perovskite with tetragonal symmetry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that BCZT ceramics have kept the 1D rod-like grains with an average aspect ratio of about 4. Rod-like BCZT ceramics exhibit enhanced dielectric ferroelectric (εr = 11,906, tanδ = 0.014, Pr = 6.01 µC/cm², and Ec = 2.46 kV/cm), and electrocaloric properties (ΔT = 0.492 K and ζ = 0.289 (K·mm)/kV at 17 kV/cm) with respect to spherical BCZT ceramics. Therefore, rod-like BCZT lead-free ceramics have good potential to be used in solid-state refrigeration technology.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Enhanced dielectric and electrocaloric properties in lead-free rod-like BCZT ceramics

Show Author's information Zouhair HANANIa,bSoukaina MERSELMIZaAbdelaadim DANINEcNicolas STEINcDaoud MEZZANEaM’barek AMJOUDa( )Mohammed LAHCINIa,dYaovi GAGOUeMatjaz SPREITZERfDamjan VENGUSTfZdravko KUTNJAKfMimoun El MARSSIeIgor A. LUK'YANCHUKe,gMohamed GOUNÉb
IMED-Lab, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh 40000, Morocco
ICMCB, University of Bordeaux, Pessac 33600, France
IJL, University of Lorraine, Nancy 54000, France
UM6P, Ben Guerir 43150, Morocco
LPMC, University of Picardy Jules Verne, Amiens 80039, France
Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana 1000, Slovenia
Physics Faculty, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don 344090, Russia

Abstract

Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.10Ti0.90O3 (BCZT) lead-free ceramics demonstrated excellent dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). So far, to study the effect of morphological changes on dielectric and ferroelectric properties in lead-free BCZT ceramics, researchers have mostly focused on the influence of spherical grain shape change. In this study, BCZT ceramics with rod-like grains and aspect ratio of about 10 were synthesized by surfactant-assisted solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) performed at room temperature confirm the crystallization of pure perovskite with tetragonal symmetry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that BCZT ceramics have kept the 1D rod-like grains with an average aspect ratio of about 4. Rod-like BCZT ceramics exhibit enhanced dielectric ferroelectric (εr = 11,906, tanδ = 0.014, Pr = 6.01 µC/cm², and Ec = 2.46 kV/cm), and electrocaloric properties (ΔT = 0.492 K and ζ = 0.289 (K·mm)/kV at 17 kV/cm) with respect to spherical BCZT ceramics. Therefore, rod-like BCZT lead-free ceramics have good potential to be used in solid-state refrigeration technology.

Keywords:

lead-free Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.10Ti0.90O3 (BCZT), rod-like Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.10Ti0.90O3 (BCZT), dielectric, ferroelectric, electrocaloric effect
Received: 29 October 2019 Revised: 24 December 2019 Accepted: 12 January 2020 Published: 07 April 2020 Issue date: April 2020
References(62)
[1]
A Kitanovski, U Plaznik, U Tomc, et al. Present and future caloric refrigeration and heat-pump technologies. Int J Refrig 2015, 57: 288-298.
[2]
G Suchaneck, O Pakhomov, G Gerlach. Electrocaloric cooling. In Refrigeration. E Orhan, Ed. InTechOpen, 2017.
[3]
ND Mathur. Future trends in electrocalorics materials. In Electrocaloric Materials. T Correia, Q Zhang, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013: 251-253.
[4]
J Zhang, YM Xuan. An integrated design of the photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system. Sol Energy 2019, 177: 293-298.
[5]
X Lu, DL Zhao, T Ma, et al. Thermal resistance matching for thermoelectric cooling systems. Energy Convers Manag 2018, 169: 186-193.
[6]
CA Taboada-Moreno, F Sánchez-De Jesús, F Pedro-García, et al. Large magnetocaloric effect near to room temperature in Sr doped La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. J Magn Magn Mater 2020, 496: 165887.
[7]
HL Du, YF Chang, CW Li, et al. Ultrahigh room temperature electrocaloric response in lead-free bulk ceramicsviatape casting. J Mater Chem C 2019, 7: 6860-6866.
[8]
M Ožbolt, A Kitanovski, J Tušek, et al. Electrocaloric vs. magnetocaloric energy conversion. Int J Refrig 2014, 37: 16-27.
[9]
M Quintero, L Ghivelder, F Gomez-Marlasca, et al. Decoupling electrocaloric effect from Joule heating in a solid state cooling device. Appl Phys Lett 2011, 99: 232908.
[10]
Z Kutnjak, B Rožič, R Pirc. Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. In Electrocaloric Effect: Theory, Measurements, and Applications. Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015: 1-19.
[11]
BA Tuttle, DA Payne. The effects of microstructure on the electrocaloric properties of Pb(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 ceramics. Ferroelectrics 1981, 37: 603-606.
[12]
JH Qiu, Q Jiang. Effect of electric field on electrocaloric effect in Pb(Zr1–xTix)O3 solid solution. Phys Lett A 2008, 372: 7191-7195.
[13]
D Xiao, Y Wang, R Zhang, et al. Electrocaloric properties of (1–x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–xPbTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics near room temperature. Mater Chem Phys 1998, 57: 182-185.
[14]
JH Gao, DZ Xue, WF Liu, et al. Recent progress on BaTiO3-based piezoelectric ceramics for actuator applications. Actuators 2017, 6: 24.
[15]
PK Panda, B Sahoo. PZT to lead free piezo ceramics: A review. Ferroelectrics 2015, 474: 128-143.
[16]
J Rödel, W Jo, KTP Seifert, et al. Perspective on the development of lead-free piezoceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2009, 92: 1153-1177.
[17]
VS Puli, DK Pradhan, DB Chrisey, et al. Structure, dielectric, ferroelectric, and energy density properties of (1–x)BZT–xBCT ceramic capacitors for energy storage applications. J Mater Sci 2013, 48: 2151-2157.
[18]
PH Hu, Y Shen, YH Guan, et al. Topological-structure modulated polymer nanocomposites exhibiting highly enhanced dielectric strength and energy density. Adv Funct Mater 2014, 24: 3172-3178.
[19]
I Coondoo, N Panwar, H Amorín, et al. Synthesis and characterization of lead-free 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.5(Ba0.7 Ca0.3)TiO3 ceramic. J Appl Phys 2013, 113: 214107.
[20]
FJ Wang, W Li, HL Jiang, et al. Preparation and dielectric properties of Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.8Zr0.2O3-polyethersulfone composites. J Appl Phys 2010, 107: 043528.
[21]
X Liu, D Wu, Z Chen, et al. Ferroelectric, dielectric and pyroelectric properties of Sr and Sn codoped BCZT lead free ceramics. Adv Appl Ceram 2015, 114: 436-441.
[22]
B Asbani, JL Dellis, A Lahmar, et al. Lead-free Ba0.8Ca0.2(ZrxTi1–x)O3 ceramics with large electrocaloric effect. Appl Phys Lett 2015, 106: 042902.
[23]
BC Luo, XH Wang, YP Wang, et al. Fabrication, characterization, properties and theoretical analysis of ceramic/PVDF composite flexible films with high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. J Mater Chem A 2014, 2: 510-519.
[24]
Z Hanani, EH Ablouh, M' Amjoud, et al. Very-low temperature synthesis of pure and crystalline lead-free B0.85C0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 ceramic. Ceram Int 2018, 44: 10997-11000.
[25]
Z Hanani, D Mezzane, M Amjoud, et al. Phase transitions, energy storage performances and electrocaloric effect of the lead-free Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.10Ti0.90O3 ceramic relaxor. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 2019, 30: 6430-6438.
[26]
H Kaddoussi, A Lahmar, Y Gagou, et al. Sequence of structural transitions and electrocaloric properties in (Ba1–xCax)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 ceramics. J Alloys Compd 2017, 713: 164-179.
[27]
WF Liu, XB Ren. Large piezoelectric effect in Pb-free ceramics. Phys Rev Lett 2009, 103: 257602.
[28]
Y Bai, A Matousek, P Tofel, et al. (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics—The critical role of processing on properties. J Eur Ceram Soc 2015, 35: 3445-3456.
[29]
JG Hao, WF Bai, W Li, et al. Correlation between the microstructure and electrical properties in high-performance (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 2012, 95: 1998-2006.
[30]
J Shi, XY Lu, JH Shao, et al. Effects on structure and properties of BCZT lead-free piezoelectric ceramics by rare-earth doping. Ferroelectrics 2017, 507: 186-197.
[31]
Z Hanani, D Mezzane, M Amjoud, et al. Enhancement of dielectric properties of lead-free BCZT ferroelectric ceramics by grain size engineering. Superlattices Microstruct 2019, 127: 109-117.
[32]
PJ Zhao, L Wang, L Bian, et al. Growth mechanism, modified morphology and optical properties of coral-like BaTiO3 architecture through CTAB assisted synthesis. J Mater Sci Technol 2015, 31: 223-228.
[33]
YX Wang, J Sun, XY Fan, et al. A CTAB-assisted hydrothermal and solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanopowders. Ceram Int 2011, 37: 3431-3436.
[34]
O Yayapao, T Thongtem, A Phuruangrat, et al. CTAB-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten oxide microflowers. J Alloys Compd 2011, 509: 2294-2299.
[35]
R Vijayalakshmi, V Rajendran. Impact of surfactants on physical properties of BaTiO3 nanoparticles. Int J Nanosci 2013, 12: 1350003.
[36]
JP Praveen, T Karthik, AR James, et al. Effect of poling process on piezoelectric properties of sol–gel derived BZT–BCT ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2015, 35: 1785-1798.
[37]
S Patel, P Sharma, R Vaish. Enhanced electrocaloric effect in Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9–xSnxO3ferroelectric ceramics. Phase Transit 2016, 89: 1062-1073.
[38]
S Roy, R Maharana, SR Reddy, et al. Structural, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of chemically processed, low temperature sintered piezoelectric BZT–BCT ceramics. Mater Res Express 2016, 3: 035702.
[39]
HR Xu, L Gao, JK Guo. Preparation and characterizations of tetragonal barium titanate powders by hydrothermal method. J Eur Ceram Soc 2002, 22: 1163-1170.
[40]
JP Praveen, T Karthik, AR James, et al. Effect of poling process on piezoelectric properties of sol–gel derived BZT–BCT ceramics. J Eur Ceram Soc 2015, 35: 1785-1798.
[41]
IK Jeong, JS Ahn. The atomic structure of lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 by using neutron total scattering analysis. Appl Phys Lett 2013, 102: 179903.
[42]
ZM Wang, JJ Wang, XL Chao, et al. Synthesis, structure, dielectric, piezoelectric, and energy storage performance of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 ceramics prepared by different methods. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 2016, 27: 5047-5058.
[43]
WF Bai, DQ Chen, JJ Zhang, et al. Phase transition behavior and enhanced electromechanical properties in (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(ZrxTi1−x)O3 lead-free piezoceramics. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 3598-3608.
[44]
RE Venkata, A Mahajan, MPF Graça, et al. Structure and ferroelectric studies of (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Ti0.9Zr0.1)O3 piezoelectric ceramics. Mater Res Bull 2013, 48: 4395-4401.
[45]
AA Bokov, ZG Ye. Recent progress in relaxor ferroelectrics with perovskite structure. In Frontiers of Ferroelectricity. Boston, MA: Springer US, 2007: 31-52.
[46]
YW Liu, YP Pu, ZX Sun. Enhanced relaxor ferroelectric behavior of BCZT lead-free ceramics prepared by hydrothermal method. Mater Lett 2014, 137: 128-131.
[47]
K Uchino, S Nomura. Critical exponents of the dielectric constants in diffused-phase-transition crystals. Ferroelectr Lett Sect 1982, 44: 55-61.
[48]
K Uchino. Advanced Piezoelectric Materials. In Relaxor Ferroelectric-Based Ceramics. Elsevier, 2017: 127-153.
[49]
HX Tang, Z Zhou, HA Sodano. Relationship between BaTiO3 nanowire aspect ratio and the dielectric permittivity of nanocomposites. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2014, 6: 5450-5455.
[50]
KS Chary, HS Panda, CD Prasad. Fabrication of large aspect ratio Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3 superfine fibers-based flexible nanogenerator device: Synergistic effect on curie temperature, harvested voltage, and power. Ind Eng Chem Res 2017, 56: 10335-10342.
[51]
A Kumar, VV Bhanu Prasad, KC James Raju, et al. Optimization of poling parameters of mechanically processed PLZT 8/60/40 ceramics based on dielectric and piezoelectric studies. Eur Phys J B 2015, 88: 287.
[52]
D Zhan, Q Xu, DP Huang, et al. Dielectric nonlinearity and electric breakdown behaviors of Ba0.95Ca0.05Zr0.3Ti0.7O3 ceramics for energy storage utilizations. J Alloys Compd 2016, 682: 594-600.
[53]
XY Cheng, F Weyland, N Novak, et al. Indirect electrocaloric evaluation: Influence of polarization hysteresis measurement frequency. Phys Status Solidi A 2019, 216: 1900684.
[54]
A Hamza, F Benabdallah, I Kallel, et al. Effect of rare-earth substitution on the electrical properties and Raman spectroscopy of BCTZ ceramics. J Alloys Compd 2018, 735: 2523-2531.
[55]
XF Chen, XL Chao, ZP Yang. Submicron Barium calcium zirconium titanate ceramic for energy storage synthesised via the co-precipitation method. Mater Res Bull 2019, 111: 259-266.
[56]
B Lu, YB Yao, XD Jian, et al. Enhancement of the electrocaloric effect over a wide temperature range in PLZT ceramics by doping with Gd3+ and Sn4+ ions. J Eur Ceram Soc 2019, 39: 1093-1102.
[57]
XD Jian, B Lu, DD Li, et al. Direct measurement of large electrocaloric effect in Ba(ZrxTi1–x)O3 ceramics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018, 10: 4801-4807.
[58]
B Lu, PL Li, ZH Tang, et al. Large electrocaloric effect in relaxor ferroelectric and antiferroelectric lanthanum doped lead zirconate titanate ceramics. Sci Rep 2017, 7: 45335.
[59]
XY Li, SG Lu, XZ Chen, et al. Pyroelectric and electrocaloric materials. J Mater Chem C 2013, 1: 23-37.
[60]
GZ Zhang, XS Zhang, TN Yang, et al. Colossal room- temperature electrocaloric effect in ferroelectric polymer nanocomposites using nanostructured Barium strontium titanates. ACS Nano 2015, 9: 7164-7174.
[61]
G Singh, VS Tiwari, PK Gupta. Electro-caloric effect in (Ba1–xCax)(Zr0.05Ti0.95)O3: A lead-free ferroelectric material. Appl Phys Lett 2013, 103: 202903.
[62]
Y Bai, X Han, LJ Qiao. Optimized electrocaloric refrigeration capacity in lead-free (1–x)BaZr0.2Ti0.8O3-xBa0.7Ca0.3TiO3 ceramics. Appl Phys Lett 2013, 102: 252904.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 29 October 2019
Revised: 24 December 2019
Accepted: 12 January 2020
Published: 07 April 2020
Issue date: April 2020

Copyright

© The author(s) 2020

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support of CNRST Priority Program (PPR 15/2015), Slovenian Research Agency Program (P1-0125), and European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant Agreement (No. 778072).

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return