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Ca3Co4O9 is a p-type semiconducting material that is well-known for its thermoelectric (TE), magnetic, electronic, and electro-optic properties. In this study, sol–gel autoignition was used to prepare Ca3Co4O9 at different calcination temperatures (773, 873, 973, and 1073 K) and time (4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 h) using starch as a fuel. The phase and microstructure of the prepared Ca3Co4O9 powder were investigated. Thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis (TGA) confirms that the final weight loss occurred at 1073 K to form Ca3Co4O9 stable powder. The variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) images show that the size of powder particles increases from 1.15 to 1.47 μm as calcination time increases from 4 to 12 h, and the size remains almost constant thereafter. A similar pattern is also observed on the increment of the crystallite size and percentage of crystallinity with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The highest crystallinity is found about 92.9% when the powder was calcinated at 1073 K for 12 and 14 h with 458 and 460 Å crystallite size, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrates that the calcinated powder has a high intensity of Ca, Co, and O with uniform distribution. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images prove that there is no distinct lattice distortion defect on the crystal structure.


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Effects of calcination temperature and time on the Ca3Co4O9 purity when synthesized using starch-assisted sol–gel combustion method

Show Author's information M. A. MOHAMMEDa,cM. B. UDAYa,bS. IZMANa( )
School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), UTM Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Centre for Advanced Composite Materials (CACM), Institute for Vehicle Systems and Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Department of Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq

Abstract

Ca3Co4O9 is a p-type semiconducting material that is well-known for its thermoelectric (TE), magnetic, electronic, and electro-optic properties. In this study, sol–gel autoignition was used to prepare Ca3Co4O9 at different calcination temperatures (773, 873, 973, and 1073 K) and time (4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 h) using starch as a fuel. The phase and microstructure of the prepared Ca3Co4O9 powder were investigated. Thermogravimetry–differential thermal analysis (TGA) confirms that the final weight loss occurred at 1073 K to form Ca3Co4O9 stable powder. The variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM) images show that the size of powder particles increases from 1.15 to 1.47 μm as calcination time increases from 4 to 12 h, and the size remains almost constant thereafter. A similar pattern is also observed on the increment of the crystallite size and percentage of crystallinity with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The highest crystallinity is found about 92.9% when the powder was calcinated at 1073 K for 12 and 14 h with 458 and 460 Å crystallite size, respectively. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis demonstrates that the calcinated powder has a high intensity of Ca, Co, and O with uniform distribution. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images prove that there is no distinct lattice distortion defect on the crystal structure.

Keywords:

calcium cobalt oxide, sol–gel, starch, combustion method, crystallite size, crystallinity
Received: 06 October 2019 Revised: 13 November 2019 Accepted: 27 November 2019 Published: 07 April 2020 Issue date: April 2020
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Publication history
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Publication history

Received: 06 October 2019
Revised: 13 November 2019
Accepted: 27 November 2019
Published: 07 April 2020
Issue date: April 2020

Copyright

© The author(s) 2019

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE), School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Institute for Vehicle Systems and Engineering and UTM Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), for Low Carbon Transport in cooperation with Imperial College London for providing the research facilities. This research study was supported by the Ministry of Education Malaysia (MOE) for the FRGS Grant (R.J130000. 7824.4F723) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) research grant (Q.J130000.2524.17H83).

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