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Two-dimensional (2D) lead-free (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) micro/nano structures with controllable K/Na ratio were successfully fabricated via a two-step molten salt synthesis (MSS). In this work, the reaction factors, including the proportion of molten salts, the types of carbonates, the sintering temperature, and the sintering time, were discussed in detail and the optimized condition was identified. The microstructure of KNN was confirmed by confocal Raman spectroscopy, while piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) was applied to measure three-dimensional (3D) morphology and piezoelectric properties of KNN particles. The as-synthesized KNN platelets apparently possess anisotropic morphology and uniform structure, the size of which reaches 5–20 µm in length/width and 0.5–1 µm in thickness. It should be noted that the K/Na ratios of the KNN crystals are basically consistent while the proportion of salts changes within a certain range. The enrichment of Na element in the products is also observed, which owes to the smaller ionic radius of Na+ comparing to that of K+. This result provides a reference for the further preparation of textured ceramics and flexible piezoelectric generators.


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Synthesis and characterization of two-dimensional lead-free (K, Na)NbO3 micro/nano piezoelectric structures

Show Author's information Li-Qian CHENGa( )Mei FENGaYiwen SUNaZhen ZHOUbZe XUa
State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) lead-free (K, Na)NbO3 (KNN) micro/nano structures with controllable K/Na ratio were successfully fabricated via a two-step molten salt synthesis (MSS). In this work, the reaction factors, including the proportion of molten salts, the types of carbonates, the sintering temperature, and the sintering time, were discussed in detail and the optimized condition was identified. The microstructure of KNN was confirmed by confocal Raman spectroscopy, while piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) was applied to measure three-dimensional (3D) morphology and piezoelectric properties of KNN particles. The as-synthesized KNN platelets apparently possess anisotropic morphology and uniform structure, the size of which reaches 5–20 µm in length/width and 0.5–1 µm in thickness. It should be noted that the K/Na ratios of the KNN crystals are basically consistent while the proportion of salts changes within a certain range. The enrichment of Na element in the products is also observed, which owes to the smaller ionic radius of Na+ comparing to that of K+. This result provides a reference for the further preparation of textured ceramics and flexible piezoelectric generators.

Keywords:

(K, Na)NbO3 (KNN), lead-free, two-dimensional (2D) structure, piezoelectric property
Received: 14 February 2019 Revised: 21 May 2019 Accepted: 20 July 2019 Published: 05 February 2020 Issue date: February 2020
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Publication history

Received: 14 February 2019
Revised: 21 May 2019
Accepted: 20 July 2019
Published: 05 February 2020
Issue date: February 2020

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© The author(s) 2019

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51602345), the State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing Tsinghua University (Grant No. KF201512), Open Fund of State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining (Grant No. SKLCRSM19KFA13), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2016QJ01).

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