Journal Home > Volume 9 , issue 1

Hierarchical WO3 nanomesh, assembled from single-crystalline WO3 nanowires, is prepared via a hydrothermal method using thiourea (Tu) as the morphology-controlling agent. Formation of the hierarchical architecture comprising of WO3 nanowires takes place via Ostwald ripening mechanism with the growth orientation. The sensor based on WO3 nanomesh has good electrical conductivity and is therefore suitable as NO2 sensing material. The WO3 nanomesh sensor exhibited high response, short response and recovery time, and excellent selectivity towards ppb-level NO2 at low temperature of 160 ℃. The superior gas performance of the sensor was attributed to the high-purity hexagonal WO3 with high specific surface area, which gives rise to enhanced surface adsorption sites for gas adsorption. The electron depletion theory was used for explaining the NO2-sensing mechanism by the gas adsorption/desorption and charge transfer happened on the surface of WO3 nanomesh.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Nanowires-assembled WO3 nanomesh for fast detection of ppb-level NO2 at low temperature

Show Author's information Di LIUXiaowei RENYesheng LIZilong TANG( )Zhongtai ZHANG
State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China

Abstract

Hierarchical WO3 nanomesh, assembled from single-crystalline WO3 nanowires, is prepared via a hydrothermal method using thiourea (Tu) as the morphology-controlling agent. Formation of the hierarchical architecture comprising of WO3 nanowires takes place via Ostwald ripening mechanism with the growth orientation. The sensor based on WO3 nanomesh has good electrical conductivity and is therefore suitable as NO2 sensing material. The WO3 nanomesh sensor exhibited high response, short response and recovery time, and excellent selectivity towards ppb-level NO2 at low temperature of 160 ℃. The superior gas performance of the sensor was attributed to the high-purity hexagonal WO3 with high specific surface area, which gives rise to enhanced surface adsorption sites for gas adsorption. The electron depletion theory was used for explaining the NO2-sensing mechanism by the gas adsorption/desorption and charge transfer happened on the surface of WO3 nanomesh.

Keywords:

WO3 nanomesh, controlling agent, NO2 sensing, charge transfer
Received: 07 May 2019 Revised: 14 July 2019 Accepted: 15 July 2019 Published: 05 February 2020 Issue date: February 2020
References(45)
[1]
A Afzal, N Cioffi, L Sabbatini, et al. NOx sensors based on semiconducting metal oxide nanostructures: Progress and perspectives. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2012, 171: 25-42.
[2]
GF Fine, LM Cavanagh, A Afonja, et al. Metal oxide semi- conductor gas sensors in environmental monitoring. Sensors 2010, 10: 5469-5502.
[3]
J Sukunta, A Wisitsoraat, A Tuantranont, et al. WO3 nanotubes–SnO2 nanoparticles heterointerfaces for ultrasensitive and selective NO2 detections. Appl Surf Sci 2018, 458: 319-332.
[4]
ZY Wang, C Zhao, TY Han, et al. High-performance reduced graphene oxide-based room-temperature NO2 sensors: A combined surface modification of SnO2 nanoparticles and nitrogen doping approach. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2017, 242: 269-279.
[5]
QT Minh Nguyet, N van Duy, NT Phuong, et al. Superior enhancement of NO2 gas response using n-p-n transition of carbon nanotubes/SnO2 nanowires heterojunctions. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2017, 238: 1120-1127.
[6]
X Geng, PF Lu, C Zhang, et al. Room-temperature NO2 gas sensors based on rGO@ZnO1-x composites: Experiments and molecular dynamics simulation. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2019, 282: 690-702.
[7]
XX Chen, YB Shen, PF Zhou, et al. NO2 sensing properties of one-pot-synthesized ZnO nanowires with Pd functionalization. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2019, 280: 151-161.
[8]
SK Zhao, YB Shen, PF Zhou, et al. Design of Au@WO3 core–shell structured nanospheres for ppb-level NO2 sensing. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2019, 282: 917-926.
[9]
ZY Zhang, M Haq, Z Wen, et al. Ultrasensitive ppb-level NO2 gas sensor based on WO3 hollow nanosphers doped with Fe. Appl Surf Sci 2018, 434: 891-897.
[10]
LL Wang, J Gao, BF Wu, et al. Designed synthesis of In2O3 Beads@TiO2–In2O3 composite nanofibers for high performance NO2 sensor at room temperature. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2015, 7: 27152-27159.
[11]
PP González-Borrero, F Sato, AN Medina, et al. Optical band-gap determination of nanostructured WO3 film. Appl Phys Lett 2010, 96: 061909.
[12]
HD Zheng, JZ Ou, MS Strano, et al. Nanostructured tungsten oxide-properties, synthesis, and applications. Adv Funct Mater 2011, 21: 2175-2196.
[13]
G Korotcenkov, BK Cho. Metal oxide composites in conductometric gas sensors: Achievements and challenges. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2017, 244: 182-210.
[14]
DH Kim, JW Jung, SJ Choi, et al. Pt nanoparticles functionalized tungsten oxynitride hybrid chemiresistor: Low-temperature NO2 sensing. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2018, 273: 1269-1277.
[15]
NA Isaac, M Valenti, A Schmidt-Ott, et al. Characterization of tungsten oxide thin films produced by spark ablation for NO2 gas sensing. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016, 8: 3933-3939.
[16]
JS Kim, JW Yoon, YJ Hong, et al. Highly sensitive and selective detection of ppb-level NO2 using multi-shelled WO3 yolk-shell spheres. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2016, 229: 561-569.
[17]
YL Wang, XB Cui, QY Yang, et al. Preparation of Ag-loaded mesoporous WO3 and its enhanced NO2 sensing performance. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2016, 225: 544-552.
[18]
SJ Choi, I Lee, BH Jang, et al. Selective diagnosis of diabetes using Pt-functionalized WO3 Hemitube networks as a sensing layer of acetone in exhaled breath. Anal Chem 2013, 85: 1792-1796.
[19]
Y Xiong, ZL Tang, Y Wang, et al. Gas sensing capabilities of TiO2 porous nanoceramics prepared through premature sintering. J Adv Ceram 2015, 4: 152-157.
[20]
HW Zhang, YY Wang, XG Zhu, et al. Bilayer Au nanoparticle-decorated WO3 porous thin films: On-chip fabrication and enhanced NO2 gas sensing performances with high selectivity. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2019, 280: 192-200.
[21]
DR Miller, SA Akbar, PA Morris. Nanoscale metal oxide- based heterojunctions for gas sensing: A review. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2014, 204: 250-272.
[22]
QQ Jia, HM Ji, DH Wang, et al. Exposed facets induced enhanced acetone selective sensing property of nanostructured tungsten oxide. J Mater Chem A 2014, 2: 13602.
[23]
SS Shendage, VL Patil, SA Vanalakar, et al. Sensitive and selective NO2 gas sensor based on WO3 nanoplates. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2017, 240: 426-433.
[24]
BX Xiao, Q Zhao, CH Xiao, et al. Low-temperature solvothermal synthesis of hierarchical flower-like WO3 nanostructures and their sensing properties for H2S. CrystEngComm 2015, 17: 5710-5716.
[25]
P Jaroenapibal, P Boonma, N Saksilaporn, et al. Improved NO2 sensing performance of electrospun WO3 nanofibers with silver doping. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2018, 255: 1831-1840.
[26]
QF Wu, J Huang, H Li. Deposition of porous nano-WO3 coatings with tunable grain shapes by liquid plasma spraying for gas-sensing applications. Mater Lett 2015, 141: 100-103.
[27]
K Lee, DH Baek, H Na, et al. Simple fabrication method of silicon/tungsten oxide nanowires heterojunction for NO2 gas sensors. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2018, 265: 522-528.
[28]
YJ Zhang, W Zeng, YQ Li. New insight into gas sensing performance of nanorods assembled and nanosheets assembled hierarchical WO3·H2O structures. Mater Lett 2019, 235: 49-52.
[29]
CB Zhai, MM Zhu, LN Jiang, et al. Fast triethylamine gas sensing response properties of nanosheets assembled WO3 hollow microspheres. Appl Surf Sci 2019, 463: 1078-1084.
[30]
J Lu, C Xu, L Cheng, et al. Acetone sensor based on WO3 nanocrystallines with oxygen defects for low concentration detection. Mater Sci Semicond Process 2019, 101: 214-222.
[31]
YX Zhang, W Zeng, YQ Li. NO2 and H2 sensing properties for urchin-like hexagonal WO3 based on experimental and first-principle investigations. Ceram Int 2019, 45: 6043-6050.
[32]
DP Xue, Y Wang, JL Cao, et al. Improving methane gas sensing performance of flower-like SnO2 decorated by WO3 nanoplates. Talanta 2019, 199: 603-611.
[33]
L Yin, DL Chen, MX Hu, et al. Microwave-assisted growth of In2O3 nanoparticles on WO3 nanoplates to improve H2S-sensing performance. J Mater Chem A 2014, 2: 18867-18874.
[34]
AK Nayak, R Ghosh, S Santra, et al. Hierarchical nanostructured WO3–SnO2 for selective sensing of volatile organic compounds. Nanoscale 2015, 7: 12460-12473.
[35]
JS Lee, OS Kwon, DH Shin, et al. WO3 nanonodule- decorated hybrid carbon nanofibers for NO2 gas sensor application. J Mater Chem A 2013, 1: 9099.
[36]
YB Shen, W Wang, XX Chen, et al. Nitrogen dioxide sensing using tungsten oxide microspheres with hierarchical nanorod-assembled architectures by a complexing surfactant-mediated hydrothermal route. J Mater Chem A 2016, 4: 1345-1352.
[37]
MF Daniel, B Desbat, JC Lassegues, et al. Infrared and Raman study of WO3 tungsten trioxides and WO3, xH2O tungsten trioxide tydrates. J Solid State Chem 1987, 67: 235-247.
[38]
Y Zheng, G Chen, YG Yu, et al. Urea-assisted synthesis of ultra-thin hexagonal tungsten trioxide photocatalyst sheets. J Mater Sci 2015, 50: 8111-8119.
[39]
JJ Shi, ZX Cheng, LP Gao, et al. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/hexagonal WO3 nanosheets composites with enhanced H2S sensing properties. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2016, 230: 736-745.
[40]
CT Pan, CY Su, YC Luo. Study on comparing WO3 and W18O49 gas sensing abilities under NO2 environment. Microsyst Technol 2017, 23: 2113-2123.
[41]
AT Mane, SB Kulkarni, ST Navale, et al. NO2 sensing properties of nanostructured tungsten oxide thin films. Ceram Int 2014, 40: 16495-16502.
[42]
B Behera, S Chandra. Synthesis of WO3 nanorods by thermal oxidation technique for NO2 gas sensing application. Mater Sci Semicond Process 2018, 86: 79-84.
[43]
S An, S Park, H Ko, et al. Fabrication of WO3 nanotube sensors and their gas sensing properties. Ceram Int 2014, 40: 1423-1429.
[44]
M Horprathum, K Limwichean, A Wisitsoraat, et al. NO2– sensing properties of WO3 nanorods prepared by glancing angle DC magnetron sputtering. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2013, 176: 685-691.
[45]
J Hu, YF Liang, YJ Sun, et al. Highly sensitive NO2 detection on ppb level by devices based on Pd-loaded In2O3 hierarchical microstructures. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2017, 252: 116-126.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 07 May 2019
Revised: 14 July 2019
Accepted: 15 July 2019
Published: 05 February 2020
Issue date: February 2020

Copyright

© The author(s) 2019

Acknowledgements

The National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013CB934301) supported this work.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return