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In the search of lead-free piezoelectric materials, ceramic processing techniques offer potential tools to increase the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in addition to new chemical compositions. Powders of pure BNKT16 (Bi0.5(Na0.84K0.16)0.5TiO3) phase were synthesized by sol-gel method with a low crystallization temperature (750 ℃). Ceramic samples were sintered by pressureless sintering (PLS), sinter-forging (SF), and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. Structural, morphological, and chemical characterizations were performed by XRD, Raman, EDS, and SEM. Sintered samples by PLS and SF exhibit rod-like grains associated to bismuth volatility. The highest remanent polarization (11.05 µC/cm2), coercive field (26.2 kV/mm), and piezoelectric coefficient (165 pC/N) were obtained for SF sample. The piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) analysis shows that the crystallites at the nanoscale exhibit piezoelectric phenomenon and the highest piezoelectric response is reported for PLS sample. The presence of the rhombohedral phase, the increase in grain and crystallite size, and the oriented rod-like inclusions favoring the crystallographic texture are facts that enhance the piezoelectric coefficient for BNKT16 piezoceramics.


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Effect of the sintering technique on the ferroelectric and d33 piezoelectric coefficients of Bi0.5(Na0.84K0.16)0.5TiO3 ceramic

Show Author's information G. HERNANDEZ-CUEVASaJ. R. LEYVA MENDOZAaP. E. GARCÍA-CASILLASaC. A. RODRÍGUEZ GONZÁLEZaJ. F. HERNANDEZ-PAZaG. HERRERA-PÉREZbL. FUENTES-COBASbS. DÍAZ DE LA TORREcO. RAYMOND-HERRERAdH. CAMACHO-MONTESa( )
Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. Del Charro 450 Norte Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, 32310, México
Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua 31109, Chihuahua, México
Centro de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Cerrada de Cecati s/n, Azcapotzalco, Santa Catarina, 02250, Ciudad de México, México
Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, AP. 14, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, México

Abstract

In the search of lead-free piezoelectric materials, ceramic processing techniques offer potential tools to increase the piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in addition to new chemical compositions. Powders of pure BNKT16 (Bi0.5(Na0.84K0.16)0.5TiO3) phase were synthesized by sol-gel method with a low crystallization temperature (750 ℃). Ceramic samples were sintered by pressureless sintering (PLS), sinter-forging (SF), and spark plasma sintering (SPS) techniques. Structural, morphological, and chemical characterizations were performed by XRD, Raman, EDS, and SEM. Sintered samples by PLS and SF exhibit rod-like grains associated to bismuth volatility. The highest remanent polarization (11.05 µC/cm2), coercive field (26.2 kV/mm), and piezoelectric coefficient (165 pC/N) were obtained for SF sample. The piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) analysis shows that the crystallites at the nanoscale exhibit piezoelectric phenomenon and the highest piezoelectric response is reported for PLS sample. The presence of the rhombohedral phase, the increase in grain and crystallite size, and the oriented rod-like inclusions favoring the crystallographic texture are facts that enhance the piezoelectric coefficient for BNKT16 piezoceramics.

Keywords:

lead-free piezoelectrics, sol-gel, pressureless sintering (PLS), sinter-forging (SF), spark plasma sintering (SPS), piezoresponse
Received: 24 September 2018 Revised: 13 December 2018 Accepted: 03 January 2019 Published: 13 June 2019 Issue date: June 2019
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Publication history

Received: 24 September 2018
Revised: 13 December 2018
Accepted: 03 January 2019
Published: 13 June 2019
Issue date: June 2019

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© The author(s) 2019

Acknowledgements

The authors are indebted to CONACYT grant A1-S-9232 for their valuable support. GHC and JRLM are grateful to CONACYT for the Ph.D. scholarship.

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