Journal Home > Volume 7 , issue 3

Pollution of water resources with pesticide compounds has raised serious environmental problems, and for photocatalytic degradation of these pollutants, thin film photocatalysts are preferred to colloidal ones due to the separation problem of colloidal nanoparticles. In this work, nanostructured TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 thin films with high transparency were deposited on glass and quartz substrates through sonochemical–chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The films prepared on glass and quartz substrates had nanocubic and nanospherical morphology, respectively. The presence of N atoms in the structure of TiO2 resulted in a decrease in the band gap energy of TiO2 and also in the reduction of photogenerated electron–hole recombination rate. Furthermore, the presence of N atoms induced the formation of Ti3+ species which can act as hole trapping centers. The prepared thin films were also used for the visible light photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon pesticide. According to these results among the prepared thin films, the N-doped TiO2 thin films have higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 thin films. Moreover, in comparison with the thin films deposited on quartz substrate, the films on glass substrate have higher photocatalytic performance, which can be related to the special nanocubic morphology of these samples.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Preparation of transparent nanostructured N-doped TiO2 thin films by combination of sonochemical and CVD methods with visible light photocatalytic activity

Show Author's information Hossein RASOULNEZHADaGhader HOSSEINZADEHb( )Reza HOSSEINZADEHcNaser GHASEMIANb
Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Standard Research Institute (SRI), Karaj, Iran
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Bonab, Bonab, Iran
Medical Laser Research Group, Medical Laser Research Center, ACECR, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Pollution of water resources with pesticide compounds has raised serious environmental problems, and for photocatalytic degradation of these pollutants, thin film photocatalysts are preferred to colloidal ones due to the separation problem of colloidal nanoparticles. In this work, nanostructured TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 thin films with high transparency were deposited on glass and quartz substrates through sonochemical–chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The films prepared on glass and quartz substrates had nanocubic and nanospherical morphology, respectively. The presence of N atoms in the structure of TiO2 resulted in a decrease in the band gap energy of TiO2 and also in the reduction of photogenerated electron–hole recombination rate. Furthermore, the presence of N atoms induced the formation of Ti3+ species which can act as hole trapping centers. The prepared thin films were also used for the visible light photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon pesticide. According to these results among the prepared thin films, the N-doped TiO2 thin films have higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 thin films. Moreover, in comparison with the thin films deposited on quartz substrate, the films on glass substrate have higher photocatalytic performance, which can be related to the special nanocubic morphology of these samples.

Keywords:

N-doped, TiO2 film, transparent, photocatalyst, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), ultrasonic
Received: 11 December 2017 Revised: 03 March 2018 Accepted: 16 March 2018 Published: 10 October 2018 Issue date: September 2018
References(60)
[1]
C-Y Tsay, S-C Liang. Ultraviolet-assisted annealing for low-temperature solution-processed p-type gallium tin oxide (GTO) transparent semiconductor thin films. Mat Sci Semicon Proc 2017, 71: 441–446.
[2]
T Choi, J-S Kim, JH Kim. Transparent nitrogen doped TiO2/WO3 composite films for self-cleaning glass applications with improved photodegradation activity. Adv Powder Technol 2016, 27: 347–353.
[3]
S Pat, HH Yudar, Ş Korkmaz, et al. Transparent nano layered Li3PO4 coatings on bare and ITO coated glass by thermionic vacuum arc method. J Mater Sci: Mater El 2017, 28: 19010–19016.
[4]
KM Lee, CW Lai, KS Ngai, et al. Recent developments of zinc oxide based photocatalyst in water treatment technology: A review. Water Res 2016, 88: 428–448.
[5]
M Farhadian, P Sangpour, G Hosseinzadeh. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of WO3–MWCNT nanocomposite for degradation of naphthalene under visible light irradiation. RSC Adv 2016, 6: 39063–39073.
[6]
A Malathi, J Madhavan, M Ashokkumar, et al. A review on BiVO4 photocatalyst: Activity enhancement methods for solar photocatalytic applications. Appl Catal A: Gen 2018, 555: 47–74.
[7]
LG Devi, R Kavitha. A review on non metal ion doped titania for the photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants under UV/solar light: Role of photogenerated charge carrier dynamics in enhancing the activity. Appl Catal B: Environ 2013, 140–141: 559–587.
[8]
X Chen, SS Mao. Titanium dioxide nanomaterials: Synthesis, properties, modifications, and applications. Chem Rev 2007, 107: 2891–2959.
[9]
B Roose, S Pathak, U Steiner. Doping of TiO2 for sensitized solar cells. Chem Soc Rev 2015, 44: 8326–8349.
[10]
AH Keihan, H Rasoulnezhad, A Mohammadgholi, et al. Pd nanoparticle loaded TiO2 semiconductor for photocatalytic degradation of Paraoxon pesticide under visible-light irradiation. J Mater Sci: Mater El 2017, 28: 16718–16727.
[11]
J Song, X Wang, Y Bu, et al. Photocatalytic enhancement of floating photocatalyst: Layer-by-layer hybrid carbonized chitosan and Fe-N-codoped TiO2 on fly ash cenospheres. Appl Surf Sci 2017, 391: 236–250.
[12]
AH Keihan, R Hosseinzadeh, M Farhadian, et al. Solvothermal preparation of Ag nanoparticle and graphene co-loaded TiO2 for the photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon pesticide under visible light irradiation. RSC Adv 2016, 6: 83673–83687.
[13]
J Wang, Z Wang, Z Zhu. Synergetic effect of Ni(OH)2 cocatalyst and CNT for high hydrogen generation on CdS quantum dot sensitized TiO2 photocatalyst. Appl Catal B: Environ 2017, 204: 577–583.
[14]
M Pelaez, NT Nolan, SC Pillai, et al. A review on the visible light active titanium dioxide photocatalysts for environmental applications. Appl Catal B: Environ 2012, 125: 331–349.
[15]
R Asahi, T Morikawa, H Irie, et al. Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide as visible-light-sensitive photocatalyst: Designs, developments, and prospects. Chem Rev 2014, 114: 9824–9852.
[16]
J Kundu, S Khilari, D Pradhan. Shape-dependent photocatalytic activity of hydrothermally synthesized cadmium sulfide nanostructures. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017, 9: 9669–9680.
[17]
T Zhang, J Su, L Guo. Morphology engineering of WO3/BiVO4 heterojunctions for efficient photocatalytic water oxidation. CrystEngComm 2016, 18: 8961–8970.
[18]
M Farhadian, P Sangpout, G Hosseinzadeh. Morphology dependent photocatalytic activity of WO3 nanostructures. J Energy Chem 2015, 24: 171–177.
[19]
M Maisano, MV Dozzi, E Selli. Searching for facet- dependent photoactivity of shape-controlled anatase TiO2. J Photoch Photobio C 2016, 28: 29–43.
[20]
T Taguchi, Y Saito, K Sarukawa, et al. Formation of new crystal faces on TiO2 particles by treatment with aqueous HF solution or hot sulfuric acid. New J Chem 2003, 27: 1304–1306.
[21]
GK Mor, OK Varghese, M Paulose, et al. A review on highly ordered, vertically oriented TiO2 nanotube arrays: Fabrication, material properties, and solar energy applications. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 2006, 90: 2011–2075.
[22]
D Li, F Chen, D Jiang, et al. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO2 nanocrystals with exposed {001} facets. Appl Surf Sci 2016, 390: 689–695.
[23]
X Zhao, W Jin, J Cai, et al. Shape- and size-controlled synthesis of uniform anatase TiO2 nanocuboids enclosed by active {100} and {001} facets. Adv Funct Mater 2011, 21: 3554–3563.
[24]
G Liu, HG Yang, X Wang, et al. Visible light responsive nitrogen doped anatase TiO2 sheets with dominant {001} facets derived from TiN. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131: 12868–12869.
[25]
Y Fan, C Ma, B Liu, et al. Nitrogen doped anatase TiO2 sheets with dominant {001} facets for enhancing visible-light photocatalytic activity. Mat Sci Semicon Proc 2014, 27: 47–50.
[26]
L Zhang, D Shi, B Liu, et al. A facile hydrothermal etching process to in situ synthesize highly efficient TiO2/Ag nanocube photocatalysts with high-energy facets exposed for enhanced photocatalytic performance. CrystEngComm 2016, 18: 6444–6452.
[27]
H Mamane, I Horovitz, L Lozzi, et al. The role of physical and operational parameters in photocatalysis by N-doped TiO2 sol–gel thin films. Chem Eng J 2014, 257: 159–169.
[28]
S Peng, Y Yang, G Li, et al. Effect of N2 flow rate on the properties of N doped TiO2 films deposited by DC coupled RF magnetron sputtering. J Alloys Compd 2016, 678: 355–359.
[29]
C Ravidhas, B Anitha, AME Raj, et al. Effect of nitrogen doped titanium dioxide (N–TiO2) thin films by jet nebulizer spray technique suitable for photoconductive study. J Mater Sci: Mate El 2015, 26: 3573–3582.
[30]
I Ruzybayev, SI Shah. The role of oxygen pressure in nitrogen and carbon co-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method. Surf Coat Technol 2014, 241: 148–153.
[31]
Z He, W Que, Y He, et al. Electrochemical behavior and photocatalytic performance of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotubes arrays powders prepared by combining anodization with solvothermal process. Ceram Int 2013, 39: 5545–5552.
[32]
TT Marrs, RL Maynard, F Sidell. Chemical Warfare Agents: Toxicology and Treatment. John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
[33]
W Zhang, AM Asiri, D Liu, et al. Nanomaterial-based biosensors for environmental and biological monitoring of organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents. TrAC Trend Anal Chem 2014, 54: 1–10.
[34]
H Rasoulnezhad, G Kavei, K Ahmadi, et al. Combined sonochemical/CVD method for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO2 thin film. Appl Surf Sci 2017, 408: 1–10.
[35]
G Cewers. Ultrasonic nebulizer. U.S. Patent 6,357,671. 2002.
[36]
S Shirsath, DV Pinjari, PR Gogate, et al. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of doped TiO2 nano-particles: Characterization and comparison of effectiveness for photocatalytic oxidation of dyestuff effluent. Ultrason Sonochem 2013, 20: 277–286.
[37]
AL Patterson. The Scherrer formula for X-ray particle size determination. Phys Rev 1939, 56: 978.
[38]
J Tauc. Absorption edge and internal electric fields in amorphous semiconductors. Mater Res Bull 1970, 5: 721–729.
[39]
G Wu, T Nishikawa, B Ohtani, et al. Synthesis and characterization of carbon-doped TiO2 nanostructures with enhanced visible light response. Chem Mater 2007, 19: 4530–4537.
[40]
F Niekiel, E Bitzek, E Spiecker. Combining atomistic simulation and X-ray diffraction for the characterization of nanostructures: A case study on fivefold twinned nanowires. ACS Nano 2014, 8: 1629–1638.
[41]
J Tao, M Hong, M Zhang, et al. Effects of growth substrate on the morphologies of TiO2 hierarchical nanoarrays and their optical and photocatalytic properties. J Mater Sci: Mater El 2016, 27: 2103–2107.
[42]
R Dong, S Jiang, Z Li, et al. Superhydrophilic TiO2 nanorod films with variable morphology grown on different substrates. Mater Lett 2015, 152: 151–154.
[43]
NR Panda, D Sahu, S Mohanty, et al. Growth morphology and optical properties of ZnO nanostructures on different substrates. J Nanosci Nanotechno 2013, 13: 427–433.
[44]
M Sathish, B Viswanathan, R Viswanath, et al. Synthesis, characterization, electronic structure, and photocatalytic activity of nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanocatalyst. Chem Mater 2005, 17: 6349–6353.
[45]
S Hu, F Li, Z Fan. Preparation of visible light responsive N doped TiO2 via a reduction–nitridation procedure by nonthermal plasma treatment. Appl Surf Sci 2011, 258: 1249–1255.
[46]
K Kalantari, M Kalbasi, M Sohrabi, et al. Enhancing the photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene using visible light responsive Fe and N co-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Ceram Int 2017, 43: 973–981.
[47]
X Cheng, X Yu, Z Xing. Enhanced photoelectric property and visible activity of nitrogen doped TiO2 synthesized from different nitrogen dopants. Appl Surf Sci 2013, 268: 204–208.
[48]
TC Jagadale, SP Takale, RS Sonawane, et al. N-doped TiO2 nanoparticle based visible light photocatalyst by modified peroxide sol−gel method. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112: 14595–14602.
[49]
FN Sayed, O Jayakumar, R Sasikala, et al. Photochemical hydrogen generation using nitrogen-doped TiO2–Pd nanoparticles: Facile synthesis and effect of Ti3+ incorporation. J Phys Chem C 2012, 116: 12462–12467.
[50]
K Kalantari, M Kalbasi, M Sohrabi, et al. Synthesis and characterization of N-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and their application in photocatalytic oxidation of dibenzothiophene under visible light. Ceram Int 2016, 42: 14834–14842.
[51]
DP Kumar, VD Kumari, M Karthik, et al. Shape dependence structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 nanocrystals for enhanced hydrogen production via glycerol reforming. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 2017, 163: 113–119.
[52]
N Nbuaki, I Tomokazu, H Kazuhito, et al. Preparation of transparent TiO2 thin film photocatalyst and its photocatalytic activity. Chem Lett 1995, 24: 841–842.
[53]
H Wang, H Lin, Y Long, et al. Titanocene dichloride (Cp2TiCl2) as a precursor for template-free fabrication of hollow TiO2 nanostructures with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production. Nanoscale 2017, 9: 2074–2081.
[54]
L Jing, Y Qu, B Wang, et al. Review of photoluminescence performance of nano-sized semiconductor materials and its relationships with photocatalytic activity. Sol Energ Mat Sol C 2006, 90: 1773–1787.
[55]
N Wu, J Wang, DN Tafen, et al. Shape-enhanced photocatalytic activity of single-crystalline anatase TiO2 (101) nanobelts. J Am Chem Soc 2010, 132: 6679–6685.
[56]
M Sánchez, ME Rincón. Sensor response of sol–gel multiwalled carbon nanotubes-TiO2 composites deposited by screen-printing and dip-coating techniques. Sensor Actuat B: Chem 2009, 140: 17–23.
[57]
L Wang, Z Nie, C Cao, et al. Carbon-wrapped TiO2 nanocubes exposed with (001) active facets for high-rate and long-life lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources 2016, 302: 259–265.
[58]
GK Prasad, PVRK Ramacharyulu, JP Kumar, et al. Photocatalytic degradation of paraoxon-ethyl in aqueous solution using titania nanoparticulate film. Thin Solid Films 2012, 520: 5597–5601.
[59]
P Kongsong, L Sikong, S Niyomwas, et al. Photocatalytic degradation of glyphosate in water by N-doped SnO2/TiO2 thin-film-coated glass fibers. Photochem Photobiol 2014, 90: 1243–1250.
[60]
H Mamane, I Horovitz, L Lozzi, et al. The role of physical and operational parameters in photocatalysis by N-doped TiO2 sol–gel thin films. Chem Eng J 2014, 257: 159–169.
Publication history
Copyright
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 11 December 2017
Revised: 03 March 2018
Accepted: 16 March 2018
Published: 10 October 2018
Issue date: September 2018

Copyright

© The author(s) 2018

Rights and permissions

Open Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return