Journal Home > Volume 6 , issue 4

The accurate evaluation of the elastic modulus of ceramic coatings at high temperature (HT) is of high significance for industrial application, yet it is not easy to get the practical modulus at HT due to the difficulty of the deformation measurement and coating separation from the composite samples. This work presented a simple approach in which relative method was used twice to solve this problem indirectly. Given a single-face or double-face coated beam sample, the relative method was firstly used to determine the real mid-span deflection of the three-point bending piece at HT, and secondly to derive the analytical relation among the HT moduli of the coating, the coated and uncoated samples. Thus the HT modulus of the coatings on beam samples is determined uniquely via the measured HT moduli of the samples with and without coatings. For a ring sample (from tube with outer-side, inner-side, and double-side coating), the relative method was used firstly to determine the real compression deformation of a split ring sample at HT, secondly to derive the relationship among the slope of load-deformation curve of the coated ring, the HT modulus of the coating and substrate. Thus, the HT modulus of ceramic coatings can be evaluated by the substrate modulus and the load-deformation data of coated rings. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived for the beam and ring samples. CVD-SiC coatings on graphite substrate were selected as the testing samples, of which the measured modulus ranging from room temperature to 2100 ℃ demonstrated the validity and convenience of the relative method.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Evaluating high temperature elastic modulus of ceramic coatings by relative method

Show Author's information Guanglin NIEYiwang BAO( )Detian WANYuan TIAN
State Key Laboratory of Green Building Materials, China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024, China

Abstract

The accurate evaluation of the elastic modulus of ceramic coatings at high temperature (HT) is of high significance for industrial application, yet it is not easy to get the practical modulus at HT due to the difficulty of the deformation measurement and coating separation from the composite samples. This work presented a simple approach in which relative method was used twice to solve this problem indirectly. Given a single-face or double-face coated beam sample, the relative method was firstly used to determine the real mid-span deflection of the three-point bending piece at HT, and secondly to derive the analytical relation among the HT moduli of the coating, the coated and uncoated samples. Thus the HT modulus of the coatings on beam samples is determined uniquely via the measured HT moduli of the samples with and without coatings. For a ring sample (from tube with outer-side, inner-side, and double-side coating), the relative method was used firstly to determine the real compression deformation of a split ring sample at HT, secondly to derive the relationship among the slope of load-deformation curve of the coated ring, the HT modulus of the coating and substrate. Thus, the HT modulus of ceramic coatings can be evaluated by the substrate modulus and the load-deformation data of coated rings. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived for the beam and ring samples. CVD-SiC coatings on graphite substrate were selected as the testing samples, of which the measured modulus ranging from room temperature to 2100 ℃ demonstrated the validity and convenience of the relative method.

Keywords:

elastic modulus, ceramic coatings, high temperature (HT), relative method, SiC
Received: 16 June 2017 Revised: 07 August 2017 Accepted: 09 August 2017 Published: 19 December 2017 Issue date: December 2017
References(57)
[1]
A Özel, V Ucar, A Mimaroglu, et al. Comparison of the thermal stresses developed in diamond and advanced ceramic coating systems under thermal loading. Mater Design 2000, 21: 437-440.
[2]
CRC Lima, N Cinca, JM Guilemany. Study of the high temperature oxidation performance of Thermal Barrier Coatings with HVOF sprayed bond coat and incorporating a PVD ceramic interlayer. Ceram Int 2012, 38: 6423-6429.
[3]
Y-L Zhang, H-J Li, X-Y Yao, et al. Oxidation resistant Si-Mo-Al coating for C/SiC coated carbon/carbon composites at high temperature. Surface Eng 2012, 28: 257-260.
[4]
D-J Yao, H-J Li, H Wu, et al. Ablation resistance of ZrC/SiC gradient coating for SiC-coated carbon/carbon composites prepared by supersonic plasma spraying. J Eur Ceram Soc 2016, 36: 3739-3746.
[5]
H-J Li, H Xue, Y-J Wang, et al. A MoSi2-SiC-Si oxidation protective coating for carbon/carbon composites. Surf Coat Tech 2007, 201: 9444-9447.
[6]
Q Yang, T Senda, A Hirose. Sliding wear behavior of WC-12% Co coatings at elevated temperatures. Surf Coat Tech 2006, 200: 4208-4212.
[7]
A Scrivani, G Rizzi, U Bardi, et al. Thermal fatigue behavior of thick and porous thermal barrier coatings systems. J Therm Spray Tech 2007, 16: 816-821.
[8]
M Keshavarz, MH Idris, N Ahmad. Mechanical properties of stabilized zirconia nanocrystalline EB-PVD coating evaluated by micro and nano indentation. J Adv Ceram 2013, 2: 333-340.
[9]
V Teixeira. Numerical analysis of the influence of coating porosity and substrate elastic properties on the residual stresses in high temperature graded coatings. Surf Coat Tech 2001, 146-147: 79-84.
[10]
KS Lee. Damage tolerance in hardly coated layer structure with modest elastic modulus mismatch. KSME Int J 2003, 17: 1638-1649.
[11]
Q Wei, J Zhu, W Chen. Anisotropic mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings at high temperature determined by ultrasonic method. J Therm Spray Tech 2016, 25: 605-612.
[12]
V Rajendran, A Karthik, SR Srither, et al. Effect of high temperature on the surface morphology and mechanical properties of nanostructured Al2O3-ZrO2/SiO2 thermal barrier coatings. Surf Coat Tech 2015, 262: 154-165.
[13]
GD Girolamo, F Marra, M Schioppa, et al. Evolution of microstructural and mechanical properties of lanthanum zirconate thermal barrier coatings at high temperature. Surf Coat Tech 2015, 268: 298-302.
[14]
GD Girolamo, F Marra, C Blasi, et al. High-temperature mechanical behavior of plasma sprayed lanthanum zirconate coatings. Ceram Int 2014, 40: 11433-11436.
[15]
G Pulci, M Tului, J Tirillò, et al. High temperature mechanical behavior of UHTC coatings for thermal protection of re-entry vehicles. J Therm Spray Tech 2011, 20: 139-144.
[16]
FL Shang, X Zhang, XC Guo, et al. Determination of high temperature mechanical properties of thermal barrier coatings by nanoindentation. Surface Eng 2014, 30: 283-289.
[17]
M Eskner, R Sandström. Mechanical properties and temperature dependence of an air plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY bondcoat. Surf Coat Tech 2006, 200: 2695-2703.
[18]
JM Wheeler, DEJ Armstrong, W Heinz, et al. High temperature nanoindentation: The state of the art and future challenges. Curr Opin Solid St M 2015, 19: 354-366.
[19]
JM Wheeler, J Michler. Invited article: Indenter materials for high temperature nanoindentation. Rev Sci Instrum 2013, 84: 101301.
[20]
JM Wheeler, RA Oliver, TW Clyne. AFM observation of diamond indenters after oxidation at elevated temperatures. Diam Relat Mater 2010, 19: 1348-1353.
[21]
W Tillmann, U Selvadurai, W Luo. Measurement of the Young’s modulus of thermal spray coatings by means of several methods. J Therm Spray Tech 2013, 22: 290-298.
[22]
L Liang, X Li, Y Wei, et al. The mechanism of high thermal shock resistance of nanostructured ceramic coatings. Int J Appl Ceram Technol 2015, 12: 1096-1102.
[23]
J Thornton, D Dale, J Ruff, et al. Phase and strain mapping of a protective coating on carbon-carbon. Surf Coat Tech 2016, 287: 119-128.
[24]
K Yamada, Y Tomono, J Morimoto, et al. Hot corrosion behavior of boiler tube materials in refuse incineration environment. Vacuum 2002, 65: 533-540.
[25]
J Liu, D Dyson, E Asselin. Long-term hot corrosion behavior of boiler tube alloys in waste-to-energy plants. Oxid Met 2016, 86: 135-149.
[26]
X Zhang. Coupled simulation of heat transfer and temperature of the composite rocket nozzle wall. Aerosp Sci Technol 2011, 15: 402-408.
[27]
B Barnett, M Trexler, V Champagne. Cold sprayed refractory metals for chrome reduction in gun barrel liners. Int J Refract Met H 2015, 53: 139-143.
[28]
H Li, G Chen, K Zhang, et al. Degradation failure features of chromium-plated gun barrels with a laser-discrete-quenched substrate. Surf Coat Tech 2007, 201: 9558-9564.
[29]
M Zhong, W Liu, H Zhang. Corrosion and wear resistance characteristics of NiCr coating by laser alloying with powder feeding on grey iron liner. Wear 2006, 260: 1349-1355.
[30]
S Uozato, K Nakata, M Ushio. Evaluation of ferrous powder thermal spray coatings on diesel engine cylinder bores. Surf Coat Tech 2005, 200: 2580-2586.
[31]
YD Chen, Q Feng, YR Zheng, et al. Formation of hole-edge cracks in a combustor liner of an aero engine. Eng Fail Anal 2015, 55: 148-156.
[32]
YW Bao, YC Zhou, XX Bu, et al. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method. Mat Sci Eng A 2007, 458: 268-274.
[33]
D Wan, Y Zhou, Y Bao. Evaluation of the elastic modulus and strength of unsymmetrical Al2O3 coating on Ti3SiC2 substrate by a modified relative methodology. Mat Sci Eng A 2008, 474: 64-70.
[34]
C Wei, Z Liu, Y Bao, et al. Evaluating thermal expansion coefficient and density of ceramic coatings by relative method. Mater Lett 2015, 161: 542-544.
[35]
Y Zhao, V Bedekar, A Aning, et al. Mechanical properties of high energy density piezoelectric ceramics. Mater Lett 2012, 74: 151-154.
[36]
J Malzbender, RW Steinbrech. Substrate stiffness determination in curved layered composites using bending methods. Surf Coat Tech 2007, 202: 379-381.
[37]
D Wan, Y Bao, X Liu, et al. Evaluation of elastic modulus and strength of glass and brittle ceramic materials by compressing a notched ring specimen. Adv Mater Res 2011, 177: 114-117.
[38]
ISO 18558:2015(E). Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics)—Test method for determining elastic modulus and bending strength of ceramic tube and rings. 2015.
[39]
Z Liu, YW Bao, DT Wan, et al. A novel method to evaluate Young’s modulus of ceramics at high temperature up to 2100 ℃. Ceram Int 2015, 41: 12835-12840.
[40]
EP Popov, S Nagarajan, ZA Lu. Mechanics of Materials, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall International Inc., 1978.
[41]
FP Beer, ER Johnston, JT Dewolf, et al. Mechanics of Materials, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
[42]
S Aliakbarpour, M Zakeri, MR Rahimipour, et al. Effect of SiC-mullite coatings on oxidation resistance of graphite. Adv Appl Ceram 2014, 113: 358-361.
[43]
W Peng, W Han, X Jin, et al. Oxidation resistant zirconium diboride-silicon carbide coatings for silicon carbide coated graphite materials. J Alloys Compd 2015, 629: 124-130.
[44]
AK Agrawal, PS Sarkar, B Singh, et al. Application of X-ray micro-CT for micro-structural characterization of APCVD deposited SiC coatings on graphite conduit. Appl Radiat Isotopes 2016, 108: 133-142.
[45]
PT Rao, U Jain, PK Mollick, et al. Application of atmospheric CVD for internal surface coating of graphite conduit by silicon carbide. J Nucl Mater 2015, 456: 200-205.
[46]
D Varshney, S Shriya, S Jain, et al. Mechanically induced stiffening, thermally driven softening, and brittle nature of SiC. J Adv Ceram 2016, 5: 13-34.
[47]
B Paul, J Prakash, PS Sarkar. Formation and characterization of uniform SiC coating on 3-D graphite substrate using halide activated pack cementation method. Surf Coat Tech 2015, 282: 61-67.
[48]
Y Huo, Y Chen. Effects of deposition temperature on the growth characteristics of CVD SiC coatings. Key Eng Mater 2008, 368-372: 846-848.
[49]
C Bellan, J Dhers. Evaluation of Young modulus of CVD coatings by different techniques. Thin Solid Films 2004, 469-470: 214-220.
[50]
ZL Liu, L Xiang. Effects of working pressure and substrate temperature on the structure and mechanical properties of nanocrystalline SiC thin films deposited by bias-enhanced hot filament chemical vapor deposition. Thin Solid Films 2014, 562: 24-31.
[51]
D Leisen, R Rusanov, F Rohlfing, et al. Mechanical characterization between room temperature and 1000 ℃ of SiC free-standing thin films by a novel high-temperature micro-tensile setup. Rev Sci Instrum 2015, 86: 055104.
[52]
G Chollon, R Naslain, C Prentice, et al. High temperature properties of SiC and diamond CVD-monofilaments. J Eur Ceram Soc 2005, 25: 1929-1942.
[53]
BV Cockeram. Fracture strength of plate and tubular forms of monolithic silicon carbide produced by chemical vapor deposition. J Am Ceram Soc 2002, 85: 603-610.
[54]
K-I Park, J-H Kim, H-K Lee, et al. High temperature mechanical properties of CVD-SiC thin films. Mod Phys Lett B 2009, 23: 3877-3886.
[55]
EW Neuman, GE Hilmas, WG Fahrenholtz. Mechanical behavior of zirconium diboride-silicon carbide-boron carbide ceramics up to 2200 ℃. J Eur Ceram Soc 2015, 35: 463-476.
[56]
G Zhao, C Huang, H Liu, et al. Microstructure and mechanical properties of hot pressed TiB2-SiC composite ceramic tool materials at room and elevated temperatures. Mat Sci Eng A 2014, 606: 108-116.
[57]
BD Beake, GS Fox-Rabinovich. Progress in high temperature nanomechanical testing of coatings for optimising their performance in high speed machining. Surf Coat Tech 2014, 255: 102-111.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 16 June 2017
Revised: 07 August 2017
Accepted: 09 August 2017
Published: 19 December 2017
Issue date: December 2017

Copyright

© The author(s) 2017

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51472227), and National High-tech R&D Program of China (863 Program, No. 2015AA034204).

Rights and permissions

Open Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.

Return