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Low-lead (1-x)BaTiO3-xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, and 0.15) were prepared by the conventional oxide mixed sintering process, and their optical band gap, Seebeck coefficient, ac ( σac) and dc ( σdc) conductivities as a function of temperature were investigated for the first time. It was found that all samples have p-type conductivity. The low-frequency (20 Hz-2 MHz) ac conductivity obeys a power law σac~ωs, which is characteristic for disordered materials. The frequency exponent s is a decreasing function of temperature and tends to zero at high temperature. σac is proportional to ω0.07 - ω0.31 in the low-frequency region and to ω0.51 - ω0.98 in the high-temperature region. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity showed a change in slope around the temperature at which the phase transition appeared. Both ac and dc conductivities showed a thermally activated character and possessed linear parts with different activation energies and some irregular changes. It was found that the hopping charge carriers dominate at low temperature and small polarons and oxygen vacancies dominate at higher temperature. (1-x)BaTiO3-xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics are expected to be promising new candidate for low-lead electronic materials.


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Electrical transport in low-lead (1-x)BaTiO3-xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics

Show Author's information J. SUCHANICZa( )K. KONIECZNYaK. ŚWIERCZEKbM. LIPIŃSKIcM. KARPIERZdD. SITKOdH. CZTERNASTEKdK. KLUCZEWSKAa
Institute of Technology, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow, Poland
Department of Hydrogen Energy, Faculty of Energy and Fuels, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Reymonta 25, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
Institute of Physics, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Krakow, Poland

Abstract

Low-lead (1-x)BaTiO3-xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics (x = 0, 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, and 0.15) were prepared by the conventional oxide mixed sintering process, and their optical band gap, Seebeck coefficient, ac ( σac) and dc ( σdc) conductivities as a function of temperature were investigated for the first time. It was found that all samples have p-type conductivity. The low-frequency (20 Hz-2 MHz) ac conductivity obeys a power law σac~ωs, which is characteristic for disordered materials. The frequency exponent s is a decreasing function of temperature and tends to zero at high temperature. σac is proportional to ω0.07 - ω0.31 in the low-frequency region and to ω0.51 - ω0.98 in the high-temperature region. The temperature dependence of the dc conductivity showed a change in slope around the temperature at which the phase transition appeared. Both ac and dc conductivities showed a thermally activated character and possessed linear parts with different activation energies and some irregular changes. It was found that the hopping charge carriers dominate at low temperature and small polarons and oxygen vacancies dominate at higher temperature. (1-x)BaTiO3-xPbMg1/3Nb2/3O3 ceramics are expected to be promising new candidate for low-lead electronic materials.

Keywords:

BT-PMN ceramics, electric properties, Seebeck coefficient
Received: 21 December 2016 Revised: 30 March 2017 Accepted: 18 April 2017 Published: 29 September 2017 Issue date: September 2017
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Publication history

Received: 21 December 2016
Revised: 30 March 2017
Accepted: 18 April 2017
Published: 29 September 2017
Issue date: September 2017

Copyright

© The author(s) 2017

Acknowledgements

The present work was supported by NCN project (No. 2012/05/B/ST5/00371).

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