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(1-x)BaTiO3xM0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (M = Li, Na, K) solid solutions were prepared using BaTiO3 pre-synthesized by oxalate method. The stability limits of (1-x)BaTiO3xLi0.5Bi0.5TiO3 solid solutions have been established. It was shown that increase in M0.5Bi0.5TiO3 concentration results in reduction of ceramic grain size in the (1-x)BaTiO3-xM0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (M = Li, Na, K) system. It was found that the positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) effect in lead-free materials is due to the presence of a semiconductor core, which is formed by sintering under reducing atmosphere, and dielectric grain boundaries, formed on additional oxidation in air. The use of barium titanate, pre-synthesized by oxalate method, in the synthesis of solid solutions reduced the sintering temperature of ceramics compared with solid state reaction technique. By comparing the electrical properties of the synthesized lead-containing and lead-free materials, it has been shown that lead-free materials exhibit better electrical properties for practical use compared with lead-containing materials.


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Semi-oxalate synthesis of (1-x)BaTiO3-xM0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (M = Li, Na, K) PTCR materials

Show Author's information T. A. PLUTENKOO. I. V’YUNOV( )A. G. BELOUSO. Z. YANCHEVSKII
Vernadskii Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Ukrainian NAS, Prospect Palladina 32/34, Kyiv 142 03680, Ukraine

Abstract

(1-x)BaTiO3xM0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (M = Li, Na, K) solid solutions were prepared using BaTiO3 pre-synthesized by oxalate method. The stability limits of (1-x)BaTiO3xLi0.5Bi0.5TiO3 solid solutions have been established. It was shown that increase in M0.5Bi0.5TiO3 concentration results in reduction of ceramic grain size in the (1-x)BaTiO3-xM0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (M = Li, Na, K) system. It was found that the positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) effect in lead-free materials is due to the presence of a semiconductor core, which is formed by sintering under reducing atmosphere, and dielectric grain boundaries, formed on additional oxidation in air. The use of barium titanate, pre-synthesized by oxalate method, in the synthesis of solid solutions reduced the sintering temperature of ceramics compared with solid state reaction technique. By comparing the electrical properties of the synthesized lead-containing and lead-free materials, it has been shown that lead-free materials exhibit better electrical properties for practical use compared with lead-containing materials.

Keywords:

lead-free ceramic, BaTiO3, semi-oxalate method, positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) effect
Received: 22 October 2015 Revised: 21 January 2016 Accepted: 22 January 2016 Published: 04 May 2016 Issue date: June 2021
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Publication history

Received: 22 October 2015
Revised: 21 January 2016
Accepted: 22 January 2016
Published: 04 May 2016
Issue date: June 2021

Copyright

© The author(s) 2016

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Centers for Shared Use of Danylo Zabolotny Institute of Microbiology and Virology of Ukrainian NAS and of the Institute of Geological Sciences of Ukrainian NAS for the possibility of electron microscopic and laser diffraction studies.

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