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In this study, the nanostructures of pure ZnO and ZnO:xCe3+ were prepared using statistic design—factorial design 3(3-1)—3-level and mixed-level factorials and fractional with replicates in the central point, totaling 11 experiments. The experiments were performed using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method with Ce3+ concentration of 2 and 4 mol% at 60, 110, and 160 ℃ for 10, 20, and 30 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical diffuse reflectance were used to characterize the products. The fractional factorial design indicated the optimal design area, and the studies were continued by ridge analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Pareto, and the model adjusted to the conditions proposed in this study due to the determination coefficient of 99.9%, variance (R²), and response surface generated were satisfactory, thus having an optimization in the process of obtaining ZnO doped with Ce.


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Experimental statistic design applied for obtaining Zn:xCe by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method with photocatalytic property

Show Author's information Y. F. GOMES( )A. K. FREITASR. M. NASCIMENTOM. R. D. BOMIOC. A. PASKOCIMASF. V. MOTTA
Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900, Natal/RN, Av. Sen. Salgado Filho, 3000, CEP 59072-970, Brazil

Abstract

In this study, the nanostructures of pure ZnO and ZnO:xCe3+ were prepared using statistic design—factorial design 3(3-1)—3-level and mixed-level factorials and fractional with replicates in the central point, totaling 11 experiments. The experiments were performed using the microwave-assisted hydrothermal (MAH) method with Ce3+ concentration of 2 and 4 mol% at 60, 110, and 160 ℃ for 10, 20, and 30 min. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical diffuse reflectance were used to characterize the products. The fractional factorial design indicated the optimal design area, and the studies were continued by ridge analysis. The analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Pareto, and the model adjusted to the conditions proposed in this study due to the determination coefficient of 99.9%, variance (R²), and response surface generated were satisfactory, thus having an optimization in the process of obtaining ZnO doped with Ce.

Keywords:

hydrothermal, ZnO, cerium, photocatalytic activity, factorial design 3(3-1)
Received: 09 November 2015 Revised: 16 December 2015 Accepted: 20 December 2015 Published: 14 June 2016 Issue date: June 2021
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Publication history

Received: 09 November 2015
Revised: 16 December 2015
Accepted: 20 December 2015
Published: 14 June 2016
Issue date: June 2021

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© The author(s) 2016

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the financial support of the Brazilian research financing institutions: CAPES/PROCAD 2013/2998/2014, CNPq.

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