AI Chat Paper
Note: Please note that the following content is generated by AMiner AI. SciOpen does not take any responsibility related to this content.
{{lang === 'zh_CN' ? '文章概述' : 'Summary'}}
{{lang === 'en_US' ? '中' : 'Eng'}}
Chat more with AI
PDF (1.3 MB)
Submit Manuscript AI Chat Paper
Show Outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Show full outline
Hide outline
Research Article | Open Access

Bioactivity of quaternary glass prepared from bentonite clay

Luqman A. ADAMSa( )Enobong R. ESSIENb
Department of Chemistry, University of Lagos, Nigeria
Department of Chemical Sciences, Bells University of Technology, P.M.B 1015 Ota, Ogun, Nigeria
Show Author Information


Alkoxysilane precursors are the most widely used silica source for sol–gel preparation of silicate-based bioactive glass. However, due to their high cost, alternative sources such as bentonite clay are desirable. In the present work, bentonite clay was reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to extract sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3). The obtained Na2SiO3 was converted to gel which was then sintered at 950 ℃ for 3 h to give the bioactive glass in the quaternary composition SiO2–NaO–CaO– P2O5. The resulting glass was incubated in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0–7 days to evaluate the bioactivity. Furthermore, glass samples were characterized before and after SBF study by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results obtained showed the presence of Na2Ca2Si3O9 (combeite) crystal as the major crystalline phase and the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxycarbonated apatite (HCA) on the surface of the glass after immersion in SBF. The material showed potentials for application as scaffold in bone tissue repair.


Lee S-C, Chen J-F, Wu C-T, et al. In situ local autograft for instrumented lower lumbar or lumbosacral posterolateral fusion. J Clin Neurosci 2009, 16: 37–43.
Damien CJ, Parsons JP. Bone graft and bone substitutes: A review of current technology and applications. J Appl Biomater 1991, 2: 187–208.
Calori GM, Mazza E, Colombo M, et al. The use of bone-graft substitutes in large bone defects: Any specific needs? Injury 2011, 42: S56–S63.
Rose FRAJ, Oreffo ROC. Bone tissue engineering: Hope vs hype. Biochem Bioph Res Co 2002, 292: 1–7.
Hench LL. Bioceramics. J Am Ceram Soc 1998, 81: 1705–1728.
Rahaman MN, Day DE, Bal BS, et al. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering. Acta Biomater 2011, 7: 2355–2373.
Oonishi H, Hench LL, Wilson J, et al. Comparative bone growth behaviour in granules of bioceramic materials of various sizes. J Biomed Mater Res 1999, 44: 31–43.
Olmo N, Martin AI, Salinas AJ, et al. Bioactive sol–gel glasses with and without a hydroxycarbonate apatite layer as substrates for osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Biomaterials 2003, 24: 3383–3393.
Jell G, Stevens MM. Gene activation by bioactive glasses. J Mater Sci: Mater M 2006, 17: 997–1002.
Pereira MM, Jones JR, Orefice RL, et al. Preparation of bioactive glass-polyvinyl alcohol hybrid foams by the sol–gel method. J Mater Sci: Mater M 2005, 16: 1045–1050.
Wu C, Luo Y, Cuniberti G, et al. Three-dimensional printing of hierarchical and tough mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds with a controllable pore architecture, excellent mechanical strength and mineralization ability. Acta Biomater 2011, 7: 2644–2650.
Fardad MA. Catalysis and structure of SiO2 sol–gel films. J Mater Sci 2000, 35: 1835–1841.
Essien ER, Adams LA, Shaibu, RO, et al. Economic route to sodium-containing silicate bioactive glass scaffold. Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine 2012, 1: 33–40.
Essien ER, Adams LA, Shaibu, RO, et al. Sol–gel bioceramic material from bentonite clay. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering 2013, 6: 258–264.
Essien ER, Olaniyi OA, Adams LA, et al. Sol–gel-derived porous silica: Economic synthesis and characterization. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering 2012, 11: 976–981.
Cao W, Hench LL. Bioactive materials. Ceram Int 1996, 22: 493–507.
Kokubo T, Takadama H. How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity? Biomaterials 2006, 27: 2907–2915.
Clupper DC, Mecholsky Jr. JJ, LaTorre GP, et al. Sintering temperature effects on the in vitro bioactive response of tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic in Tris buffer. J Biomed Mater Res 2001, 57: 532–540.
Clupper DC, Mecholsky Jr. JJ, LaTorre GP, et al. Bioactivity of tape cast and sintered bioactive glass-ceramic in simulated body fluid. Biomaterials 2002, 23: 2599–2606.
Chen Q-Z, Li Y, Jin L-Y, et al. A new sol–gel process for producing Na2O-containing bioactive glass ceramics. Acta Biomater 2010, 6: 4143–4153.
Gerhardt L-C, Boccaccini AR. Bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Materials 2010, 3: 3867–3910.
Peitl O, Zanotto ED, Hench LL. Highly bioactive P2O5–Na2O–CaO–SiO2 glass-ceramics. J Non-Cryst Solids 2001, 292: 115–126.
Oliveira JM, Correia RN, Fernandes MH. Effects of Si speciation on the in vitro bioactivity of glasses. Biomaterials 2002, 23: 371–379.
Alexandre M, Dubois P. Polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites: Preparation, properties and uses of a new class of materials. Mat Sci Eng R 2000, 28: 1–63.
Katti KS, Katti DR. Relatioship of swelling and swelling pressure on silica–water interactions in montmorillonite. Langmuir 2006, 22: 532–537.
Rezwan K, Chen QZ, Blaker JJ, et al. Biodegradable and bioactive porous polymer/inorganic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2006, 27: 3413–3431.
Vitale-Brovarone C, Miola M, Balagna C, et al. 3D-glass-ceramic scaffolds with antibacterial properties for bone grafting. Chem Eng J 2008, 137: 129–136.
Karageorgiou V, Kaplan D. Porosity of 3D biomaterial scaffolds and osteogenesis. Biomaterials 2005, 26: 5474–5491.
Smith IO, Ren F, Baumann MJ, et al. Confocal laser scanning microscopy as a tool for imaging cancellous bone. J Biomed Mater Res B 2006, 79: 185–192.
Woodard JR, Hilldore AJ, Lan SK, et al. The mechanical properties and osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite bone scaffolds with multi-scale porosity. Biomaterials 2007, 28: 45–54.
Vitale-Brovarone C, Baino F, Verné E. High strength bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone regeneration. J Mater Sci: Mater M 2009, 20: 643–653.
Du R, Chang J. Preparation and characterization of bioactive sol–gel-derived Na2Ca2Si3O9. J Mater Sci: Mater M 2004, 15: 1285–1289.
Filho OP, LaTorre GP, Hench LL. Effect of crystallization on apatite-layer formation of bioactive glass 45S5. J Biomed Mater Res 1996, 30: 509–514.
Chen QZ, Thompson ID, Boccaccini AR. 45S5 Bioglasss®-derived glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials 2006, 27: 2414–2425.
Hench LL, Polak JM. Third-generation biomedical materials. Science 2002, 295: 1014–1017.
Hench LL. The story of Bioglass®. J Mater Sci: Mater M 2006, 17: 967–978.
Hench LL Bioceramics: From concept to clinic. J Am Ceram Soc 1991, 74: 1487–1510.
Hench LL, Andersson Ö. Bioactive glasses. In: An Introduction to Bioceramics. Hench LL, Wilson J, Eds. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, 1993: 41–62.
Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 47-53
Cite this article:
ADAMS LA, ESSIEN ER. Bioactivity of quaternary glass prepared from bentonite clay. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2016, 5(1): 47-53.








Web of Science






Received: 27 July 2015
Revised: 15 September 2015
Accepted: 14 October 2015
Published: 07 January 2016
© The author(s) 2016

Open Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.