Journal Home > Volume 4 , Issue 4

Nowadays kaolin raw material is usually used to produce nano-kaolin for geopolymer enhancement by using firing method. In the present study, kaolin used was taken from the Naqus Formation (Cambro-Ordovician age), west of Gabal El Gunna, Sinai, Egypt. Nano-kaolin material is an ultrafine material and was prepared from the taken kaolin by the firing process at 800 ℃ for 2 h with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min. Six mixes were prepared and their laboratory specimens were made and cured up to 90 days. Water cooled slag was used as starting material, and sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used in the study as activators for the used kaolin. The formed geopolymer mixes with different ratios (1%, 1.5%, 3%, 5%, and 7%) of nano-kaolin as a partial replacement for the raw kaolin were investigated. Gelenium Ace super plasticizer was added in the ratio of 4% from the dry weight to ensure good dispersing of the used nano clay. Results showed that increasing the percentage of nano-kaolin up to 3% results in an enhancement in the mechanical properties as compared with the control mix up to 90 days of curing, while higher ratios are not preferable where they lead to agglomeration of the added nano materials and matrix dilution.


menu
Abstract
Full text
Outline
About this article

Production of geopolymer composites enhanced by nano-kaolin material

Show Author's information Mahmoud M. HASSAANaHisham M. KHATERb( )Medhat S. EL-MAHLLAWYbAbdeen M. EL NAGARb
Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt
Housing and Building National Research Centre (HBRC), 87 El-Tahrir St., Dokki, Giza, P.O. Box 1770, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract

Nowadays kaolin raw material is usually used to produce nano-kaolin for geopolymer enhancement by using firing method. In the present study, kaolin used was taken from the Naqus Formation (Cambro-Ordovician age), west of Gabal El Gunna, Sinai, Egypt. Nano-kaolin material is an ultrafine material and was prepared from the taken kaolin by the firing process at 800 ℃ for 2 h with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min. Six mixes were prepared and their laboratory specimens were made and cured up to 90 days. Water cooled slag was used as starting material, and sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate were used in the study as activators for the used kaolin. The formed geopolymer mixes with different ratios (1%, 1.5%, 3%, 5%, and 7%) of nano-kaolin as a partial replacement for the raw kaolin were investigated. Gelenium Ace super plasticizer was added in the ratio of 4% from the dry weight to ensure good dispersing of the used nano clay. Results showed that increasing the percentage of nano-kaolin up to 3% results in an enhancement in the mechanical properties as compared with the control mix up to 90 days of curing, while higher ratios are not preferable where they lead to agglomeration of the added nano materials and matrix dilution.

Keywords:

geopolymer, nano-kaolin, sodium silicate, slag
Received: 24 February 2015 Revised: 05 May 2015 Accepted: 11 May 2015 Published: 22 September 2015 Issue date: April 2015
References(26)
[1]
Davidovits J. Chemistry of geopolymeric systems, terminology. In Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Geopolymer, Saint-Quentin, France, 1999: 9-39.
[2]
Krivenko PV. Peculiarity of formation of the contact zone (slag alkaline cement mineral wool). In Second International Symposium on Cement and Concrete Technology, Istanbul, Turkey, 2000: 553-561.
[3]
Habert G, de Lacaillerie JB, Roussel N. An environmental evaluation of geopolymer based concrete production: Reviewing current research trends. J Clean Prod 2011, 19: 1229-1238.
[4]
McLellan BC, Williams RP, Lay J, et al. Costs and carbon emissions for geopolymer pastes in comparison to ordinary Portland cement. J Clean Prod 2011, 19: 1080-1090.
[5]
Hasanbeigi A, Price L, Lin E. Emerging energy-efficiency and CO2 emission-reduction technologies for cement and concrete production: A technical review. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2012, 16: 6220-6238.
[6]
Ali MB, Saidur R, Hossain MS. A review on emission analysis in cement industries. Renew Sust Energ Rev 2011, 15: 2252-2261.
[7]
Muntasser TZ. Properties and durability of slag based cement in the Mediterranean environment. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Surrey, 2002.
[8]
Neville AM. Properties of Concrete, 4th edn. Longman Scientific & Technical Ltd., 1995.
[9]
ACI Committee 266 1R-87. Ground granulated blast-furnace slag as a cementitious constituent in concrete. 1987.
[10]
Concrete Society. The use of GGBS and PFA in concrete. Techn Rep 1991, 40: 142.
[11]
Sersale R, Amicarelli V, Frigione G, et al. A study on the utilization of an Italian steel slag. In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1986: 194-198.
[12]
Shi C. Steel slag—Its production, processing, characteristics, and cementitious properties. J Mater Civil Eng 2004, 16: 230-236.
[13]
Ye N, Yang J, Ke X, et al. Synthesis and characterization of geopolymer from Bayer red mud with thermal pretreatment. J Am Ceram Soc 2014, 97: 1652-1660.
[14]
Kuo W-Y, Huang J-S, Lin C-H. Effects of organo-modified montmorillonite on strengths and permeability of cement mortars. Cement Concrete Res 2006, 36: 886-895.
[15]
Li H, Xiao H, Ou J. A study on the mechanical and pressure sensitive properties of cement mortar with nanophase materials. Cement Concrete Res 2004, 34: 435-438.
[16]
Khater HM, El-Sabbagh BA, Fanny M, et al. Effect of nano-silica on alkali activated water-cooled slag geopolymer. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Microstructural-related Durability of Cementitious Composites, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2012: 11-13.
[17]
El-Sayed HA, Abo El-Enein SA, Khater HM, et al. Resistance of alkali activated water-cooled slag geopolymer to sulfate attack. Ceram-Silikaty 2011, 55: 153-160.
[18]
Khater HM. Effect of cement kiln dust on geopolymer composition and its resistance to sulphate attack. Green Materials 2013, 1: 36-46.
[19]
Khater HM, Zedane SR. Geopolymerization of industrial by-products and study of their stability upon firing treatment. International Journal of Engineering and Technology 2012, 2: 308-316.
[20]
Khater HM. Studying the effect of thermal and acid exposure on alkali-activated slag geopolymer. Adv Cem Res 2014, 26: 1-9.
[21]
Khater HM, El-Sabbagh BA, Fanny M, et al. Effect of nano-clay on alkali activated water-cooled slag geopolymer. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology 2013, 3: 764-776.
DOI
[22]
ASTM International. ASTM C109M-12, Standard test method for compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 2012.
[23]
Panias D, Giannopolou IP, Perraki T. Effect of synthesis parameters on the mechanical properties of fly ash-based geopolymers. Colloid Surface A 2007, 301: 246-254.
[24]
Bakharev T. Thermal behaviour of geopolymer prepared using class F fly ash and elected temperature curing. Cement Concrete Res 2006, 36: 1134-1147.
[25]
Khater HM. Effect of calcium on geopolymerization of aluminosilicate wastes. J Mater Civ Eng 2012, 24: 92-101.
[26]
Khater HM. Effect of silica fume on the characterization of the geopolymer materials. International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering 2013, 5: 12.
Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements
Rights and permissions

Publication history

Received: 24 February 2015
Revised: 05 May 2015
Accepted: 11 May 2015
Published: 22 September 2015
Issue date: April 2015

Copyright

© The author(s) 2015

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the geologist Yousry Abu Qamar who works in the Middle East Mining Investment Co. (Egypt) for the facilities he offered in the field work.

Rights and permissions

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.

Return