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Synthetic inorganic pigments are most widely used in ceramic applications due to their excellent chemical and thermal stability and their lower toxicity to both human and environment as well. In the present work, black ceramic pigment CoFe2O4 has been synthesized by the complex polymerization method (CPM) with good chemical homogeneity. In order to study the influence of variables on the process of obtaining pigment through CPM, 2(5-2) fractional factorial design with resolution III was used. The variables studied in the mathematical modeling were: citric acid/metal concentration, pre-calcination time, calcination temperature, calcination time, and calcination rate. Powder pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. Based on the results, the formation of cobalt ferrite phase (CoFe2O4) with spinel structure was verified. The color of pigments obtained showed dark shades, from black to gray. The model adjusted to the conditions proposed in this study due to the determination coefficient of 99.9% and variance (R²) showed that all factors are significant at the confidence level of 95%.


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Influence of variables on the synthesis of CoFe2O4 pigment by the complex polymerization method

Show Author's information P. N. MEDEIROSa( )Y. F. GOMESaM. R. D. BOMIOaI. M. G. SANTOSbM. R. S. SILVAbC. A. PASKOCIMASaM. S. LIcF. V. MOTTAa
Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Lagoa Nova, CEP 59078-900-Natal/RN, Brazil
Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraíba, Cidade Universitária, CEP 58051-900-João Pessoa/PB, Brazi
Institute Physics of São Carlos, USP, CEP 13566-590, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil

Abstract

Synthetic inorganic pigments are most widely used in ceramic applications due to their excellent chemical and thermal stability and their lower toxicity to both human and environment as well. In the present work, black ceramic pigment CoFe2O4 has been synthesized by the complex polymerization method (CPM) with good chemical homogeneity. In order to study the influence of variables on the process of obtaining pigment through CPM, 2(5-2) fractional factorial design with resolution III was used. The variables studied in the mathematical modeling were: citric acid/metal concentration, pre-calcination time, calcination temperature, calcination time, and calcination rate. Powder pigments were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. Based on the results, the formation of cobalt ferrite phase (CoFe2O4) with spinel structure was verified. The color of pigments obtained showed dark shades, from black to gray. The model adjusted to the conditions proposed in this study due to the determination coefficient of 99.9% and variance (R²) showed that all factors are significant at the confidence level of 95%.

Keywords:

pigment, complex polymerization method (CPM), fractional factorial design
Received: 27 October 2014 Revised: 08 February 2015 Accepted: 09 February 2015 Published: 30 May 2015 Issue date: June 2015
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Publication history

Received: 27 October 2014
Revised: 08 February 2015
Accepted: 09 February 2015
Published: 30 May 2015
Issue date: June 2015

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© The author(s) 2015

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the financial support of the Brazilian research financing institutions: RECAM (Rede de Catalisadores Ambientais), CNPq, and CAPES.

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