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Research Article | Open Access

Utilization of iron oxide bearing pellets waste for preparing hard and soft ferromagnetic glass ceramics

Salwa A. M. ABDEL-HAMEEDa( )Ibrahim M. HAMEDbNehal A. ERFANb
Glass Research Department, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt
Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Minia University, Minia, Egypt
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About 8% of the imported iron oxide pellets burdens to Egypt are wasted. In this paper, broken pellets waste (BPW) is used as raw material for the preparation of hard magnetic glass ceramics (HMGC) as well as soft magnetic glass ceramics (SMGC). About 54 wt% and 37 wt% of BPW are used to prepare SMGC and HMGC, respectively. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) reveals two broad exothermic peaks for HMGC at 591 ℃ and 697 ℃, whereas one exothermic peak at 820 ℃ is detected for SMGC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the crystallization of hematite as the sol phase in BPW, and meanwhile, Zn–ferrite and Ba–hexaferrite are identified in SMGC and HMGC, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the crystallization of nanosize particles of ~20 nm for SMGC and ~12 nm for HMGC. Vibrating scanning magnetometer (VSM) reveals an increase in saturation magnetization from ~1 emu/g for BPW to ~77 emu/g for SMGC and 21 emu/g for HMGC.


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Journal of Advanced Ceramics
Pages 259-268
Cite this article:
ABDEL-HAMEED SAM, HAMED IM, ERFAN NA. Utilization of iron oxide bearing pellets waste for preparing hard and soft ferromagnetic glass ceramics. Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2014, 3(4): 259-268.








Web of Science






Received: 04 May 2014
Revised: 18 June 2014
Accepted: 20 June 2014
Published: 30 November 2014
© The author(s) 2014

Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits any use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and the source are credited.