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This paper reports that ferromagnetism (FM) can be induced in ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramic with selection of appropriate substituents like Zn and Mn. High density polycrystalline samples of Zn and Mn substituted BaTiO3 (Ba1-xZnxTi1-xMnxO3, x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1) were prepared using slow step solid state sintering technique to study the effect of equiproprotional substituents on structural, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of BaTiO3 (BTO). High precision electrical and magnetic measurements were carried out along with XRD, XPS, and SEM to understand and co-relate magnetic and ferroelectric hysteresis loop observed at room temperature with different values of 'x'. It is seen that ferroelectric hysteresis loop (P~E) is deteriorated (became lossy type) with the increase of Zn and Mn concentration. However, at x=0.1, the material showed the signature of room temperature ferromagnetism, which is an index for BTO to became a promising material for multiferroic applications. M~H loops observed in Zn and Mn substituted BTO are expected to be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies and exchange interaction induced magnetism.


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Effect of equiproprotional substitution of Zn and Mn in BaTiO3 ceramic—An index to multiferroic applications

Show Author's information S. K. DASP. P. ROUTS. K. PRADHANB. K. ROUL*( )
Institute of Materials Science, Planetarium Building, Acharya Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751013, India

Abstract

This paper reports that ferromagnetism (FM) can be induced in ferroelectric barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramic with selection of appropriate substituents like Zn and Mn. High density polycrystalline samples of Zn and Mn substituted BaTiO3 (Ba1-xZnxTi1-xMnxO3, x=0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1) were prepared using slow step solid state sintering technique to study the effect of equiproprotional substituents on structural, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of BaTiO3 (BTO). High precision electrical and magnetic measurements were carried out along with XRD, XPS, and SEM to understand and co-relate magnetic and ferroelectric hysteresis loop observed at room temperature with different values of 'x'. It is seen that ferroelectric hysteresis loop (P~E) is deteriorated (became lossy type) with the increase of Zn and Mn concentration. However, at x=0.1, the material showed the signature of room temperature ferromagnetism, which is an index for BTO to became a promising material for multiferroic applications. M~H loops observed in Zn and Mn substituted BTO are expected to be due to the formation of oxygen vacancies and exchange interaction induced magnetism.

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Key words: ceramic, magnetism, hexagonal, polarization
Received: 22 September 2012 Accepted: 09 October 2012 Published: 11 December 2012 Issue date: September 2012
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Publication history

Received: 22 September 2012
Accepted: 09 October 2012
Published: 11 December 2012
Issue date: September 2012

Copyright

© The author(s) 2012

Acknowledgements

Author S. K. Das acknowledges to CSIR, New Delhi for providing financial support, CRF, IIT-Kharagpur for SEM measurements and CIF, IIT-Guwahati for magnetic measurements. The authors also acknowledge to Mr. S. Choudhury of IOP, Bhubaneswar for his help in carrying out XPS measurements.

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