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Wearable electronics powered by flexible energy storage devices have captured global attention. Under low-temperature conditions, unfortunately, solidification of flexible hydrogel electrolyte and decreased pseudo-capacity of these devices largely hamper their practical use. In this study, photothermally-active Prussian blue (PB) was introduced onto poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/polyacrylamide (PEDOT/PAM) networks to address the challenges of electrolyte solidification and degraded pseudo-capacitance for flexible all-in-one device at low temperatures. The as-constructed PB/PEDOT/PAM hydrogel device delivers stable electrochemical performance and remarkable mechanical property with 1652% elongation. Importantly, this hydrogel device well retains its flexibility in cold environment with a freezing point below −30 °C. The incorporation of PB extends the voltage range to 1.5 V as a single device, thus significantly enhancing the electrochemical performance as an all-in-one integrated device. Benefitting from the outstanding photo-to-thermal conversion ability of embedded PB nanocubes, the temperature of the assembled all-in-one PB/PEDOT/PAM device increased from −20 to 17.7 °C after solar-light irradiation for only 5 min. Moreover, the degraded pseudo-capacitance was subsequently boosted to 287.1% of its original capacitance at −20 °C. This study establishes a connection between flexible all-solid-state hydrogel devices and photothermally enhanced pseudo-capacitors in freezing environments, thereby expanding the potential applications of multi-functional pseudo-capacitors.

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Publication history
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Acknowledgements

Publication history

Received: 03 January 2024
Revised: 06 May 2024
Accepted: 07 May 2024
Published: 06 June 2024

Copyright

© Tsinghua University Press 2024

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 22374015 and 22074013) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. N232410019). Special thanks are due to the instru-mental or data analysis from Analytical and Testing Center, Northeastern University.

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