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Research Article

An aqueous rechargeable Fe//LiMn2O4 hybrid battery with superior electrochemical performance beyond mainstream Fe-based batteries

Yu Liu1Dehui Xie1Yuxin Shi2Rongguan Lv1Yingna Chang1Yuzhen Sun1Zhiyuan Zhao1Jindi Wang1Kefan Song1Huayu Wu1Tuan K.A. Hoang3( )Rong Xing1( )Huan Pang2( )
Institute of New Energy on Chemical Storage and Power Sources, School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng 224000, China
School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada
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Graphical Abstract

An aqueous rechargeable Fe//LiMn2O4 hybrid battery using the decoupled LiOH-LiNO3 as electrolytes was successfully built. This battery system can deliver an average working voltage of ~ 2 V and large energy density of 235.3 Wh/kg, which are far superior than those of mainstream Fe-based aqueous batteries.

Abstract

Aqueous rechargeable batteries (ARBs) are generally safer than non-aqueous analogues, they are also less-expensive, and more friendly to the environment. However, the inherent disadvantage of the narrow electrochemical window of H2O seriously restricts the energy density and output voltage of ARBs, especially aqueous rechargeable Fe-based batteries. Herein, we introduce a new battery system: the anode contains C@Fe/Fe2O3 composite, which is interfaced with an alkaline electrolyte; the cathode contains LiMn2O4 in contact with a neutral electrolyte. A Li+-conducting membrane is carefully selected to decouple the electrode–electrolyte, which effectively widens the electrochemical window to above 2.65 V, thereby enables an aqueous rechargeable iron battery. Its average output voltage is 1.83 V and its energy density is 235.3 Wh/kg at 549 W/kg. In this work, we propose the energy storage mechanism with the aid of density functional theory (DFT). The calculated reduction potential of the anode agrees with the experimental value. Furthermore, this battery system demonstrates long cycle lifespan of approximately 2500 cycles at 2 A/g, corresponding to a capacity retention of 82.1%. These results are very far superior than those of mainstream aqueous rechargeable Fe-based batteries, which guarantee future investigation for storing electricity energy.

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Nano Research
Pages 5168-5178
Cite this article:
Liu Y, Xie D, Shi Y, et al. An aqueous rechargeable Fe//LiMn2O4 hybrid battery with superior electrochemical performance beyond mainstream Fe-based batteries. Nano Research, 2024, 17(6): 5168-5178. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-024-6440-9
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Received: 19 August 2023
Revised: 18 October 2023
Accepted: 22 December 2023
Published: 25 January 2024
© Tsinghua University Press 2024
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