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Review Article

Defect spinel oxides for electrocatalytic reduction reactions

Zhijuan Liu1,§Jinyu Guo1,§Lu-yu Liu1Fen Wang1Zhijie Kong1( )Yanyong Wang2( )
Henan Key Laboratory of Crystalline Molecular Functional Materials, Henan International Joint Laboratory of Tumor Theranostical Cluster Materials, Key Laboratory of Special Environmental Functional Materials (Zhengzhou University), Ministry of Education, Green Catalysis Center, and College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
State Key Laboratory of Chem/Bio-sensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China

§ Zhijuan Liu and Jinyu Guo contributed equally to this work.

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Graphical Abstract

This review summarized the recent advance about the application of defect spinel oxides in electrocatalytic reduction reactions.


Electrocatalytic reduction reactions play a crucial role in electrochemical energy conversion and storage technology, which are emerging technologies to ameliorate environmental problems. Spinel oxides are widely explored in electrocatalytic oxidation reactions but have a poor intrinsic ability to reduction reactions, making their electrocatalytic ability less effective. To improve this, defect engineering is a valuable method for regulating the electronic structure and coordination environment. Herein, this manuscript discusses the use of defect spinel oxides in electrocatalytic reduction reactions, including the different types of defects, construction methods, and characterization techniques. It also outlines the various applications of defect spinel oxides in different electrocatalytic reduction reactions. Finally, it goes over the challenges and future outlooks for defect spinels. This review aims to thoroughly explain how defect spinels work in electrocatalytic reduction reactions and serve as a helpful guide for creating effective electrocatalysts.

Nano Research
Pages 3547-3570
Cite this article:
Liu Z, Guo J, Liu L-y, et al. Defect spinel oxides for electrocatalytic reduction reactions. Nano Research, 2024, 17(5): 3547-3570.






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Received: 04 September 2023
Revised: 07 November 2023
Accepted: 15 November 2023
Published: 29 December 2023
© Tsinghua University Press 2023