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Research Article

Finger-actuated wireless-charging wearable multifunctional sweat-sensing system for levodopa and vitamin C

Qihong Ning1,§Shaoqing Feng2,§Qingwen Sun1Ruoyao Yu1Tangan Li1Hao Xu3Daxiang Cui1Kan Wang1( )
School of Sensing Science and Engineering, School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology (Ministry of Education), Shanghai 200240, China
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China
School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

§ Qihong Ning and Shaoqing Feng contributed equally to this work.

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Graphical Abstract

The multifunctional sweat sensing system integrates finger-driven pumps, wireless charging, and transmission. The system boasts excellent capabilities for efficient sweat collection, sweat backflow prevention, and real-time monitoring of body temperature and biomarker concentrations.


Efficient portable wearable sweat sensors allow the long-term monitoring of changes in the status of biomarkers in sweat, which can be useful in diagnosis, medication, and nutritional assessment. In this study, we designed and tested a wireless, battery-free, flexible, self-pumping sweat-sensing system that simultaneously tracks levodopa and vitamin C levels in human sweat and detects body temperature. The system includes a microfluidic chip with a self-driven pump and anti-reflux valve, a flexible wireless circuit board, and a purpose-designed smartphone app. The microfluidic chip is used for the efficient collection of sweat and the drainage of excess sweat. The dual electrochemical sensing electrodes in the chip are modified with functional materials and appropriate enzymatic reagents, achieving excellent selectivity and stability. The sensitivities of the levodopa sensor and the vitamin C sensor are 0.0073 and 0.0018 μA·μM−1, respectively, and the detection correlation coefficients of both exceed 0.99. Both sensors have a wide linear detection range of 0–100 and 0–1000 μM, respectively, and low detection limits of 0.28 and 17.9 μM, respectively. The flexible wireless circuit board is equipped with the functions of wireless charging, electrical signal capture and processing, and wireless transmission. The data recorded from each sensor are displayed on a smartphone via a self-developed app. A series of experimental results confirmed the reliability of the sweat-sensing system in noninvasively monitoring important biomarkers in the human body and its potential utility in the comprehensive assessment of biological health.

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Nano Research
Pages 3096-3106
Cite this article:
Ning Q, Feng S, Sun Q, et al. Finger-actuated wireless-charging wearable multifunctional sweat-sensing system for levodopa and vitamin C. Nano Research, 2024, 17(4): 3096-3106.






Web of Science






Received: 11 August 2023
Revised: 11 September 2023
Accepted: 12 September 2023
Published: 11 November 2023
© Tsinghua University Press 2023