Electrocatalysis can enable efficient energy storage and conversion and thus is an effective way to achieve carbon neutrality. The unique structure and function of organisms can offer many ideas for the design of electrocatalysts, which has become one of the most promising research directions. Recently, the understanding of the mechanism of bio-inspired electrocatalysis has become clearer, which has promoted the design of bio-inspired catalysts and catalytic systems. Various bio-inspired catalysts (enzyme-like catalysts, layered porous catalysts, superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic surfaces, and so on) have been developed to enable efficient electrocatalytic reactions. Herein, we discuss the key advances in the field of bio-inspired electrocatalysts progressed in recent years. First, the role of bio-inspiration in increasing the intrinsic activity and number of active sites of catalysts is introduced. Then, the structure and mechanism of layered porous catalytic systems that mimic biological transport systems are comprehensively discussed. Subsequently, the design of three-phase interfaces from micro-nanoscale to atomic scale is highlighted, including the wettability of the electrode surface and the transport system near the electrode. We conclude the review by identifying challenges in bio-inspired electrocatalysts and providing insights into future prospects for the exciting research field.