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The development of microenvironment-responsive nanoprobes has shown great promise for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with the advantage of significantly improved specificity and good biocompatibility. However, the clinical application of responsive probes is hampered by a lack of biological sensitivity for early molecular diagnostics and visualizing microenvionment of metabolism reprogramming in tumor progression. Here, we report on a dual-ratiometric magnetic resonance tunable (DMRT) nanoprobe designed by crosslinking different ratios of transferrin chelating gadolinium and superparamagnetic nanoparticles, complexed to a pH responsive biocompatible polymer. This dually activatable nanoprobe enables pH-dependent tumor microenvironment visualization, providing exceptional quantitative pathophysiological information in vitro and in vivo. When used in combination with dual-contrast enhancement triple subtraction imaging technique (DETSI), this smart nanoprobe guarantees the diagnosis of early-stage diseases. We envisage that this novel integrated nanoplatform will provide a new paradigm for the clinical translation of robust DMRT nanoprobes for early disease detection and staging, as well as microenvironment visualization and disease progression monitoring.

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Publication history
Copyright
Acknowledgements

Publication history

Received: 25 December 2022
Revised: 18 March 2023
Accepted: 20 March 2023
Published: 15 April 2023
Issue date: July 2023

Copyright

© Tsinghua University Press 2023

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to acknowledge Shanghai General Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81971664 and 82272057) and the Shanghai Pujiang Program (No. 2019PJD044).

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