Owing to stable spatial framework and large electrochemical interface, self-supported transition metal chalcogenides have been actively explored in renewable energy fields, especially in oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Here, we review the research progress of self-supported transition metal chalcogenides (including sulfides, selenides, and tellurides) for the OER in recent years. The basic principle and evaluation parameters of OER are first introduced, and then the preparation methods of transition metal chalcogenides on various self-supporting substrates (including Ni foam (NF), carbon cloth (CC), carbon fiber paper (CFP), metal mesh/plate, etc.) are systematically summarized. Subsequently, advanced optimization strategies (including interface and defect engineering, heteroatom doping, edge engineering, surface morphology engineering, and construction of heterostructure) are introduced in detail to improve the inherent catalytic activity of self-supported electrocatalysts. Finally, the challenges and prospects of developing more promising self-supported chalcogenide electrocatalysts are proposed.