Zero-dimensional (0D) Cs3Bi2I9, two-dimensional (2D) Cs3Bi2Br9 and one-dimensional (1D) Cs3Bi2Cl9 perovskite films have been successfully grown on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates, which were used to fabricate the memristor with the structure of Al/Cs3Bi2X9 (X=I, Br, Cl)/ITO glass. The current three types of memristor exhibited bipolar resistive switching behaviors. Both the endurance and retention time tests clearly demonstrated the excellent stability of present devices. Especially, the ON/OFF ratio of the 0D-Cs3Bi2I9 device is close to 104 at the reading voltage of 0.1 V, which is nearly 100 and 1000 times larger than that of the 1D-Cs3Bi2Cl9 device and the 2D-Cs3Bi2Br9 device, respectively. The activation energy of halide vacancies in the Cs3Bi2X9 (X=I, Br, Cl) films was calculated using the density functional theory by considering a minimum migration path, demonstrating the dimensionality of the Cs3Bi2X9 (X=I, Br, Cl) film affected the formation and rupture of conductive filament. Moreover, the short-term plasticity and long-term plasticity of biological synapse were simulated by evaluating the conductance responses of Al/Cs3Bi2X9 (X=I, Br, Cl)/ITO devices under various voltage pulses in detail. The duration time of long-term plasticity in all the present devices can last up to 250 s. The 0D-Cs3Bi2I9 device showed both the highest spike-duration dependent plasticity and paired-pulsed facilitation indexes compared to other two devices. Additionally, the 0D-Cs3Bi2I9 device successfully establishes the associative learning behavior by simulating the Pavlov’s dog experiment.