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Research Article

CO2-promoted transfer-free growth of conformal graphene

Ruojuan Liu1,2,§Zhe Peng3,§Xiaoli Sun2,§Zhaolong Chen4,§Zhi Li2Haina Ci2,5Bingzhi Liu2,5Yi Cheng1,2Bei Jiang1,2Junxiong Hu4Wanjian Yin2,5( )Jingyu Sun2,5( )Zhongfan Liu1,2( )
Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
Beijing Graphene Institute, Beijing 100095, China
Beijing Cancer Hospital, Beijing 100142, China
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117575, Singapore
College of Energy, Soochow Institute for Energy and Materials Innovations, SUDA-BGI Collaborative Innovation Center, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China

§ Ruojuan Liu, Zhe Peng, Xiaoli Sun, and Zhaolong Chen contributed equally to this work.

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Graphical Abstract

The CO2-promoted strategy allows the transfer-free, high-quality, and uniform growth of graphene over insulators. The conformal growth feature and transparent conductive property of as-grown graphene successfully render the applications in the far-infrared thermal therapy realm.


Gaseous promotors have readily been adopted during the direct synthesis of graphene over insulators to enhance the growth quality and/or boost the growth rate. The understanding of the real functions of carbon-containing promotors has still remained elusive. In this study, we identify the critical roles of a representative CO2 promotor played in the direct growth of graphene. The comparative experimental trials validate CO2 as an effective modulator to decrease graphene nucleation density, improve growth kinetics, and mitigate adlayer formation. The first-principles calculations illustrate that the generation of gas-phase OH species in CO2-assisted system helps decrease the energy barriers of CH4 decomposition and carbon attachment to the growth front, which might be the key factor to allow high-quality direct growth. Such a CO2-promoted strategy enables the conformal coating of graphene film over curved insulators, where the sheet resistance of grown graphene on quartz reaches as low as 1.26 kΩ·sq−1 at an optical transmittance of ~ 95.8%. The fabricated endoscope lens based on our conformal graphene harvests an apoptosis of 82.8% for noninvasive thermal therapy. The work presented here is expected to motivate further investigations in the controllable growth of high-quality graphene on insulating substrates.

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Nano Research
Pages 6334-6342
Cite this article:
Liu R, Peng Z, Sun X, et al. CO2-promoted transfer-free growth of conformal graphene. Nano Research, 2023, 16(5): 6334-6342.






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Received: 11 October 2022
Revised: 30 October 2022
Accepted: 03 November 2022
Published: 21 December 2022
© Tsinghua University Press 2022