With research burgeoning in nanoscience and nanotechnology, there is an urgent need to develop new biological models that can simulate native structure, function, and genetic properties of tissues to evaluate the adverse or beneficial effects of nanomaterials on a host. Among the current biological models, three-dimensional (3D) organoids have developed as powerful tools in the study of nanomaterial–biology (nano–bio) interactions, since these models can overcome many of the limitations of cell and animal models. A deep understanding of organoid techniques will facilitate the development of more efficient nanomedicines and further the fields of tissue engineering and personalized medicine. Herein, we summarize the recent progress in intestinal organoids culture systems with a focus on our understanding of the nature and influencing factors of intestinal organoid growth. We also discuss biomimetic extracellular matrices (ECMs) coupled with nanotechnology. In particular, we analyze the application prospects for intestinal organoids in investigating nano–intestine interactions. By integrating nanotechnology and organoid technology, this recently developed model will fill the gaps left due to the deficiencies of traditional cell and animal models, thus accelerating both our understanding of intestine-related nanotoxicity and the development of nanomedicines.
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2021YFA1200900), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 32271460), the Major instrument project of NSFC (No. 22027810), NSFC Major Research Plan-Integrated Program (No. 92143301), the Innovative Research Group Project of NSFC (No. 11621505), the CAS international cooperative project (No. GJHZ201949), the CAS Interdisciplinary Innovation Team, the CAS Key Research Program for Frontier Sciences (No. QYZDJ-SS-SLH022), the Research and Development Project in Key Areas of Guangdong Province (No. 2019B090917011), CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (No. CIFMS 2019-I2M-5-018), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. XDB36000000). All figures in this review are created with Biorender.com (2022).
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