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Research Article

Submonolayer Eu superstructures—A class of 2D magnets

Dmitry V. AveryanovIvan S. SokolovAlexander N. TaldenkovOleg E. ParfenovAndrey M. TokmachevVyacheslav G. Storchak( )
National Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182, Russia
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Graphical Abstract

Synthesis and characterization of magnetic superstructures on germanium demonstrate that submonolayer twodimensional (2D) magnetism is a general phenomenon for Eu lattices of various density, stoichiometry, and chemical bonding. The results establish a new class of 2D magnets and set the stage for in-depth exploration of submonolayer magnetic materials.


Two-dimensional (2D) magnetic materials promise unconventional properties and quantum phases as well as advances in ultra-compact spintronics. Miniaturization of 2D magnets often reaches a single monolayer but in general can go beyond this limit, as demonstrated by 2D magnetism of submonolayer Eu superstructures coupled with Si. The question is whether the submonolayer magnetism constitutes a general phenomenon. Herein, we demonstrate that regular Eu lattices form a class of 2D magnets displaying various structures, stoichiometries, and chemical bonding. We synthesized and studied a set of Eu superstructures on Ge(001). Their magnetic properties are consistent with the emergence of a magnetic order such as ferro- or ferrimagnetism. In particular, control over the magnetic transition temperature by weak magnetic fields indicates the 2D nature of the magnetism. Taken together, Eu/Ge and Eu/Si superstructures seed a nucleus of the research area addressing the emergence of magnetism in submonolayer chemical species.

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Nano Research
Pages 1500-1506
Cite this article:
Averyanov DV, Sokolov IS, Taldenkov AN, et al. Submonolayer Eu superstructures—A class of 2D magnets. Nano Research, 2023, 16(1): 1500-1506.






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Received: 18 May 2022
Revised: 16 June 2022
Accepted: 23 June 2022
Published: 30 July 2022
© Tsinghua University Press 2022