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Research Article

Rational design of a hollow porous structure for enhancing diffusion kinetics of K ions in edge-nitrogen doped carbon nanorods

Ping Niu1,3,§Yang Yang2,§Zhiqiang Li1,3Gaohui Ding1,3Lingzhi Wei1,3Ge Yao1,3Helin Niu3Yulin Min4( )Fangcai Zheng1,3( )Qianwang Chen1,2
Institutes of Physical Science and Information Technology, Key Laboratory of Structure and Functional Regulation of Hybrid Materials, Anhui University, Ministry of Education, Hefei 230601, China
Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China
Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry of Anhui Province, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials Electric Power, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy-Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090, China

§ Ping Niu and Yang Yang contributed equally to this work.

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Graphical Abstract

Herein, hollow carbon nanorods were rationally designed as a case to verify the superiority of one-dimensional (1D) hollow structure to improve the diffusion kinetics of K+. Simultaneously, edge-N (pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N) atoms were also introduced into 1D hollow carbon structure, which can provide ample active sites and defects in graphitic lattices to adsorb K+, providing extra capacitive storage capacity.

Abstract

The high electrical conductivity makes it possible for one-dimensional (1D) carbon materials to be used as the promising anodes for potassium ion batteries (PIBs), however, the sluggish diffusion kinetics caused by large-sized potassium ions (K+) limits their practical applications in energy storage systems. In this work, hollow carbon nanorods were rationally designed as a case to verify the superiority of 1D hollow structure to improve the diffusion kinetics of K+. Simultaneously, edge-N (pyridinic-N and pyrrolic-N) atoms were also introduced into 1D hollow carbon structure, which can provide ample active sites and defects in graphitic lattices to adsorb K+, providing extra capacitive storage capacity. As expected, the optimized edge-N doped hollow carbon nanorods (ENHCRs) exhibits a high reversible capacity of 544 mAh·g−1 at 0.1 A·g−1 after 200 cycles. Even at 5 A·g−1, it displays a long-term cycling stability with 255 mAh·g−1 over 10,000 cycles. The electrochemical measurements confirm that the hollow structure is favorable to improve the transfer kinetics of K+ during cycling. And the theoretical calculations demonstrate that edge-N doping can enhance the local electronegativity of graphitic lattices to adsorb much more K+, where edge-N doping synergizes with 1D hollow structure to achieve enhanced K+-storage performances.

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Nano Research
Pages 8109-8117
Cite this article:
Niu P, Yang Y, Li Z, et al. Rational design of a hollow porous structure for enhancing diffusion kinetics of K ions in edge-nitrogen doped carbon nanorods. Nano Research, 2022, 15(9): 8109-8117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-022-4496-y
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Received: 16 February 2022
Revised: 12 April 2022
Accepted: 03 May 2022
Published: 25 June 2022
© Tsinghua University Press 2022
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