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MXene is a new intercalation pseudocapacitive electrode material for supercapacitor application. Intensifying fast ion diffusion is significantly essential for MXene to achieve excellent electrochemical performance. The expansion of interlayer void by traditional spontaneous species intercalation always leads to a slight increase in capacitance due to the existence of species sacrificing the smooth diffusion of electrolyte ions. Herein, an effective intercalation−deintercalation interlayer design strategy is proposed to help MXene achieve higher capacitance. Electrochemical cation intercalation leads to the expansion of interlayer space. After electrochemical cation extraction, intercalated cations are deintercalated mostly, leaving a small number of cations trapped in the interlayer silt and serving as pillars to maintain the interlayer space, offering an open, unobstructed interlayer space for better ion migration and storage. Also, a preferred surface with more −O terminations for redox reaction is created due to the reaction between cations and −OH terminations. As a result, the processed MXene delivers a much improved capacitance compared to that of the original Ti3C2Tx electrode (T stands for the surface termination groups, such as −OH, −F, and −O). This study demonstrates an improvement of electrochemical performance of MXene electrodes by controlling the interlayer structure and surface chemistry.

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Publication history

Received: 25 July 2021
Revised: 09 October 2021
Accepted: 18 October 2021
Published: 22 November 2021
Issue date: September 2021

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© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

The work reported here was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 52072196, 52002199, 52002200, 52071171, and 52102106), Major Basic Research Program of Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2020ZD09), Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (Nos. ZR2019BEM042 and ZR2020QE063), the Innovation and Technology Program of Shandong Province (No. 2020KJA004), the Open Project of Chemistry Department of Qingdao University of Science and Technology (No. QUSTHX201813), the Taishan Scholars Program of Shandong Province (No. ts201511034), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2020M683450), the Guangdong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (Nos. 2019A1515110933, 2019A1515110554, 2020A1515111086, and 2020A1515110219), and the Innovation Pilot Project of Integration of Science, Education and Industry of Shandong Province (No. 2020KJC-CG04). We express our grateful thanks to them for their financial support.

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Email: nanores@tup.tsinghua.edu.cn

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