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A continuous synthesis method for the less than 10 nm core–shell upconversion nanoparticles was developed via coiled tube embedded flask reactors and a flow solvothermal co-participation reaction up to 300 ℃. Fast nucleation of hexagonal nanocrystals in less than 9 min residence time was achieved owing to the excellent heating ability of the reactors, and a two-step reaction strategy was created for the synthesis of β-NaYF4: Gd, Yb, Er/Ho/Tm@NaYF4 particles without intermediate purification.

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Publication history

Received: 14 March 2021
Revised: 19 May 2021
Accepted: 20 May 2021
Published: 20 October 2021
Issue date: February 2022

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© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2021

Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the supports from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21991104 and 92034303).

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Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.
Email: nanores@tup.tsinghua.edu.cn

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