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Exposure to oxygen alters the physical and chemical properties of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). In particular, oxygen in the ambient may influence the device stability of 2D TMDs over time. Engineering the doping of 2D TMDs, especially hole doping is highly desirable towards their device function. Herein, controllable oxygen-induced p-type doping in a range of hexagonal (MoTe2, WSe2, MoSe2 and PtSe2) and pentagonal (PdSe2) 2D TMDs are demonstrated. Scanning tunneling microscopy, electrical transport and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to probe the origin of oxygen-derived hole doping. Three mechanisms are postulated that contribute to the hole doping in 2D TMDs, namely charge transfer from absorbed oxygen molecules, surface oxides, and chalcogen atom substitution. This work provides insights into the doping effects of oxygen, enabling the engineering of 2D TMDs properties for nanoelectronic applications.

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Publication history

Received: 15 July 2020
Revised: 04 August 2020
Accepted: 04 August 2020
Published: 08 September 2020
Issue date: December 2020

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© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51472164), Shenzhen Peacock Plan (No. KQTD2016053112042971), the Educational Commission of Guangdong Province (Nos. 2015KGJHZ006 and 2016KCXTD006), and the Science and Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (No. 2016B050501005). A. T. S. W. acknowledges funding support from MOE Tier 2 grant R 144-000-382-112, A*STAR Pharos Program (No. 1527300025), and facility support from the NUS Centre for Advanced 2D Materials (CA2DM).

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Email: nanores@tup.tsinghua.edu.cn

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