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Aqueous rechargeable batteries are a possible strategy for large-scale energy storage systems. However, limited choices of anode materials restrict their further application. Here we report phenazine (PNZ) as stable anode materials in different alkali-ion (Li+, Na+, K+) electrolyte. A novel full cell is assembled by phenazine anode, Na0.44MnO2 cathode and 10 M NaOH electrolyte to further explore the electrochemical performance of phenazine anode. This battery is able to achieve high capacity (176.7 mAh·g-1 at 4 C (1.2 A·g-1)), ultralong cycling life (capacity retention of 80% after 13,000 cycles at 4 C), and excellent rate capacity (92 mAh·g-1 at 100 C (30 A·g-1)). The reaction mechanism of PNZ during charge-discharge process is demonstrated by in situ Raman spectroscopy, in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Furthermore, the system is able to successfully operate at wide temperature range from -20 to 70 °C and achieves remarkable electrochemical performance.

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Publication history

Received: 10 November 2019
Revised: 24 December 2019
Accepted: 23 January 2020
Published: 12 February 2020
Issue date: March 2020

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© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Nos. 2016YFB0901500 and 2016YFB0101201), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51771094), Ministry of Education of China (Nos. B12015 and IRT13R30), and Tianjin High-Tech (No. 18JCZDJC31500).

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Reprints and Permission requests may be sought directly from editorial office.
Email: nanores@tup.tsinghua.edu.cn

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