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Research Article

The study of the interactions between graphene and Ge(001)/Si(001)

Pawel Dabrowski1( )Maciej Rogala1Iwona Pasternak2Jacek Baranowski2Wlodzimierz Strupinski2Marek Kopciuszynski4Ryszard Zdyb4Mieczyslaw Jalochowski4Iaroslav Lutsyk1,3Zbigniew Klusek1
Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied InformaticsUniversity of Lodz, Pomorska 149/15390-236Lodz, Poland
Institute of Electronic Materials TechnologyWolczynska 13301-919Warsaw, Poland
Department of Solid State PhysicsYuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University, Kotsubinsky 258012Chernivtsi, Ukraine
Institute of PhysicsMaria Curie-Sklodowska University, pl. M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 120-031Lublin, Poland
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Graphical Abstract


The interaction between graphene and germanium surfaces was investigated using a combination of microscopic and macroscopic experimental techniques and complementary theoretical calculations. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for different reconstructions of the Ge(001) surface showed that the interactions between graphene and the Ge(001) surface introduce additional peaks in the density of states, superimposed on the graphene valence and conduction energy bands. The growth of graphene induces nanofaceting of the Ge(001) surface, which exhibits well-organized hill and valley structures. The graphene regions covered by hills are of high quality and exhibit an almost linear dispersion relation, which indicates weak graphene-germanium interactions. On the other hand, the graphene component occupying valley regions is significantly perturbed by the interaction with germanium. It was also found that the stronger graphene-germanium interaction observed in the valley regions is connected with a lower local electrical conductivity. Annealing of graphene/Ge(001)/Si(001) was performed to obtain a more uniform surface. This process results in a surface characterized by negligible hill and valley structures; however, the graphene properties unexpectedly deteriorated with increasing uniformity of the Ge(001) surface. To sum up, it was shown that the mechanism responsible for the formation of local conductivity inhomogeneities in graphene covering the Ge(001) surface is related to the different strength of graphene-germanium interactions. The present results indicate that, in order to obtain high-quality graphene, the experimental efforts should focus on limiting the interactions between germanium and graphene, which can be achieved by adjusting the growth conditions.

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Nano Research
Pages 3648-3661
Cite this article:
Dabrowski P, Rogala M, Pasternak I, et al. The study of the interactions between graphene and Ge(001)/Si(001). Nano Research, 2017, 10(11): 3648-3661.






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Received: 02 September 2016
Revised: 28 February 2017
Accepted: 04 March 2017
Published: 06 May 2017
© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017